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Brunei

Brunei

Geography:- About the size of Delaware, Brunei is an independent sultanate on the northwest coast of the island of Borneo in the South China Sea, wedged between the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.

Government;- Constitutional sultanate.

History:- Brunei was trading with China during the 6th century, and, through allegiance to the Javanese Majapahit kingdom (13th to 15th century), it came under Hindu influence. In the early 15th century, with the decline of the Majapahit kingdom and widespread conversion to Islam, Brunei became an independent sultanate. It was a powerful state from the 16th to the 19th century, ruling over the northern part of Borneo and adjacent island chains. But Brunei fell into decay and lost Sarawak in 1841, becoming a British protectorate in 1888 and a British dependency in 1905. Japan occupied Brunei during World War II; it was liberated by Australia in 1945. The sultan regained control over internal affairs in 1959, but Britain retained responsibility for the state's defense and foreign affairs until 1984, when the sultanate became fully independent. Sultan Bolkiah was crowned in 1967 at the age of 22, succeeding his father, Sir Omar Ali Saifuddin, who had abdicated. During his reign, exploitation of the rich Seria oilfield had made the sultanate wealthy. Brunei has one of the highest per capita incomes in Asia, and the sultan is believed to be one of the richest men in the world. In Aug. 1998, Oxford-educated Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah was inaugurated as heir to the 500-year-old monarchy.

National Name: Negara Brunei Darussalam Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese Ethnicity/race: Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12% National Holiday: National Day, February 23 Religions: Islam (official religion) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10% Literacy rate: 92.7% (2011 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $21.11 billion billion; per capita $38,500. Real growth rate: –2.8%. Inflation: 2%. Unemployment: 2.7% (2011). Arable land: 1%. Agriculture: rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, eggs. Labor force: 198,800; note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary residents make up about 40% of labor force; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 2.9%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 61.1%, government 36% (2003 est.). Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction. Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber. Exports: $10.67 billion f.o.b. (2011 est.): crude oil, natural gas, refined products. Imports: $228.4 billion c.i.f. (2011 est.): machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals. Major trading partners: Japan, South Korea, Australia, U.S., Thailand, Indonesia, China, Singapore, Malaysia, UK (2004). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 79,900 (2011); mobile cellular: 435,100 (2011). Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998). Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997). Internet hosts: 49,403 (2011). Internet users: 314,900 (2011). Transportation: Highways: total: 2,971 km (2011). Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m (2004). Ports and harbors: Lumut, Muara, Seria. Airports: 2 (2011 est.). International disputes: in 2003 Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have stalemated prompting consideration of international legal adjudication; Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is in dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants.

राजधानी बन्दर सेरी बेगवान

ब्रुनेई (मलय : برني دارالسلام नेगारा ब्रुनेई दारुस्सलाम) जंबुद्वीप में स्थित एक देश है। ये इंडोनेशिया के पास स्थित है। ये एक राजतन्त्र (सल्तनत) है। ब्रुनेई पूर्व में एक समृद्ध मुस्लिम सल्तनत थी, जिसका प्रभाव संपूर्ण बोर्नियो तथा फिलीपिन्स के कुछ भागों तक था। १८८८ में यह ब्रिटिश संरक्षण में आ गया। १९४१ में जापानियों ने यहां अधिकार कर लिया। १९४५ में ब्रिटेन ने इसे मुक्त करवाकर पुन: अपने संरक्षण में ले लिया। १९७१ में ब्रुनेई को आंतरिक स्वशासन का अधिकार मिला। १९८४ में इसे पूर्ण स्वतंत्रता प्राप्त हुई।

 

 

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