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Myanmar

Myanmar

Geography: Slightly smaller than Texas, Myanmar occupies the Thailand/Cambodia portion of the Indochinese peninsula. India lies to the northwest and China to the northeast. Bangladesh, Laos, and Thailand are also neighbors. The Bay of Bengal touches the southwest coast. The fertile delta of the Irrawaddy River in the south contains a network of interconnecting canals and nine principal river mouths.

Government :Military regime.

History: The ethnic origins of modern Myanmar (known historically as Burma) are a mixture of Indo-Aryans, who began pushing into the area around 700 B.C. , and the Mongolian invaders under Kublai Khan who penetrated the region in the 13th century. Anawrahta (1044–1077) was the first great unifier of Myanmar. In 1612, the British East India Company sent agents to Burma, but the Burmese doggedly resisted efforts of British, Dutch, and Portuguese traders to establish posts along the Bay of Bengal. Through the Anglo-Burmese War in 1824–1826 and two subsequent wars, the British East India Company expanded to the whole of Burma. By 1886, Burma was annexed to India, then became a separate colony in 1937.

Capital: Rangoon,National name: Pyidaungsu Myanmar Naingngandau Languages: Burmese, minority languages Ethnicity/race: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5% Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Islam 4%, Animist 1%, other 2% Literacy rate: 92.7% (2011 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $111.1 billion; per capita $1,700. Real growth rate: 6.8%. Inflation:5.7%. Unemployment: 5.2%. Arable land: 15.94%. Agriculture: rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish and fish products. Labor force: 34.31 million; agriculture 70%, industry 7%, services 23% (2001). Industries: agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement; natural gas. Natural resources:petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower. Exports: $9.043 billion (2013); note: official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh: clothing, gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice. Imports: $10.11 billion (2013 est.); note: import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled in from Thailand, China, Malaysia, and India: fabric, petroleum products, plastics, machinery, transport equipment, construction materials, crude oil; food products. Major trading partners: Thailand, India, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 556,000 (2012); mobile cellular: 5.44 million (2012). Broadcast media: government controls all domestic broadcast media; 2 state-controlled TV stations with 1 of the stations controlled by the armed forces; 2 pay-TV stations are joint state-private ventures; access to satellite TV is limited; 1 state-controlled domestic radio station and 9 FM stations that are joint state-private ventures; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in parts of Burma; the Voice of America (VOA), Radio Free Asia (RFA), BBC Burmese service, the Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB), and Radio Australia use shortwave to broadcast in Burma; VOA, RFA, and DVB produce daily TV news programs that are transmitted by satellite to audiences in Burma. Internet hosts: 1,055; note: as of Sept. 2000, Internet connections were legal only for the government, tourist offices, and a few large businesses (2012). Internet users: 110,000 (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 5,031 km (2008). Highways: total: 34,377 km; (2010 est.). Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels. Ports and harbors: Moulmein, Sittwe, Rangoon. Airports: 64 (2013). International disputes: over half of Burma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups who have substantial numbers of kin in neighboring countries; the Naf River on the border with Bangladesh serves as a smuggling and illegal transit route; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 29,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border with Bangladesh in 2010; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; fencing along the India-Burma international border at Manipur's Moreh town is in progress to check illegal drug trafficking and movement of militants; over 90,000 mostly Karen refugees and asylum seekers fleeing civil strife, political upheaval, and economic stagnation in Burma were living in remote camps in Thailand near the border as of year-end 2013.

ब्रह्मदेशबर्मा या म्यन्मा दक्षिण एशिया का एक देश है। इसका आधुनिक बर्मी नाम 'म्यन्मा' है।बर्मी भाषा में  का उच्चारण  किया जाता है अतः सही उच्चारण म्यन्मा है। इसका पुराना अंग्रेजी नाम बर्मा था जो यहाँ के सर्वाधिक बहुल बमा जाति के नाम पर रखा गया था। इसके उत्तर में चीन, पश्चिम में भारतबांग्लादेश एवंम् हिन्द महासागर तथा दक्षिण एवंम पूर्व की दिशा मेंइंडोनेशिया देश स्थित हैं। यह भारत एवम चीन के बीच एक रोधक राज्य का भी काम करता है। इसकी राजधानी नाएप्यीडॉ और सबसे बड़ा शहर देश की पूर्व राजधानी यांगून है, जिसका पूर्व नाम रंगून था।

भूगोल

म्यान्मार दक्षिण पूर्व एशिया का सबसे बड़ा देश है, जिसका कुल क्षेत्रफ़ल ६,७८,५०० वर्ग किलोमीटर है। म्यान्मार विश्व का चॉलीसवां सबसे बड़ा देश है। इसकी उत्तर पश्चिमी सीमाएं भारत के मिज़ोरम,नागालॅण्डमणिपुरअरुणाचल प्रदेश और बांग्लादेश के चिटगॉव प्रांत को मिलती है। उत्तर मे देश की सबसे लंबी सीमा तिब्ब्त और चीन के उनान प्रांत के साथ है। म्यान्मार के दक्षिण-पूर्व मे लाओस ओरथाईलैंड देश है। म्यान्मार की तट रेखा (१,९३० किलोमिटर) देश के कुल सीमा का एक तिहाई है। बंगाल की खाड़ी और अंडमान सागर देश के दक्षिण पश्चि्म और दक्षिण में क्रमशः पड़ते है। उत्तर में हेंगडुआन शान पर्वत चीन के साथ सीमा बनाते है।म्यान्मार में तीन पर्वत श्रृंखलाएं है जो कि हिमालय से शुरु होकर उत्तर से दक्षिण दिशा मे फ़ैली हुई है। इनका नाम है रखिने योमा, बागो योमा और शान पठार। यह श्रृंखला म्यान्मार को तीन नदी तंत्र मे बांटती है। इनका नाम है ऎयारवाडीसालवीन और सीतांग। ऎयारवाडी ब्रह्मदेश कि सबसे लंबी नदी है। इसकी लंबाई २,१७० किलोमीटर है। मरतबन की खाड़ी मे गिरने से पहले यह नदी म्यान्मार के सबसे उपजाऊ भूमि से हो कर गुजरती है। म्यान्मार की अधिकतर जनसंख्या इसी नदी की घाटी मे निवास करती है जो कि रखिने योमा और शान पठार के बीच स्थित है।देश का अधिकतम भाग कर्क रेखा और भूमध्य रेखा के बीच मे स्थित है। ब्रह्मदेश एशिया महाद्वीप के मानसून क्षेत्र मे स्थित है, सालाना यहॉ के तटीय क्षेत्रों में ५००० मिलीमीटर, डेल्टा भाग में लगभग २५०० मिलीमीटर और मध्य म्यान्मार के शुष्क क्षेत्रों में १००० मिलीमीट वर्षा होती है।

 

 

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