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Burundi

Burundi

Geography:- Wedged between Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda in east-central Africa, Burundi occupies a high plateau divided by several deep valleys. It is equal in size to Maryland.

History:- The original inhabitants of Burundi were the Twa, a Pygmy people who now make up only 1% of the population. Today the population is divided between the Hutu (approximately 85%) and the Tutsi, approximately 14%. While the Hutu and Tutsi are considered to be two separate ethnic groups, scholars point out that they speak the same language, have a history of intermarriage, and share many cultural characteristics. Traditionally, the differences between the two groups were occupational rather than ethnic. Agricultural people were considered Hutu, while the cattle-owning elite were identified as Tutsi. In theory, Tutsi were tall and thin, while Hutu were short and square, but in fact it is often impossible to tell one from the other. The 1933 requirement by the Belgians that everyone carry an identity card indicating tribal ethnicity as Tutsi or Hutu increased the distinction. Since independence, the landowning Tutsi aristocracy has dominated Burundi. Burundi was once part of German East Africa. Belgium won a League of Nations mandate in 1923, and subsequently Burundi, with Rwanda, was transferred to the status of a United Nations trust territory. In 1962, Burundi gained independence and became a kingdom under Mwami Mwambutsa IV, a Tutsi. A Hutu rebellion took place in 1965, leading to brutal Tutsi retaliations. Mwambutsa was deposed by his son, Ntaré V, in 1966. Ntaré in turn was overthrown the same year in a military coup by Premier Michel Micombero, also a Tutsi. In 1970–1971, a civil war erupted, leaving more than 100,000 Hutu dead. On Nov. 1, 1976, Lt. Col. Jean-Baptiste Bagaza led a coup and assumed the presidency. He suspended the constitution and announced that a 30-member Supreme Revolutionary Council would be the governing body. In Sept. 1987, Bagaza was overthrown by Maj. Pierre Buyoya, who became president. Ethnic hatred again flared in Aug. 1988, and about 20,000 Hutu were slaughtered. Buyoya, however, began reforms to heal the country's ethnic rift. The Burundi Democracy Front's candidate, Melchior Ndadaye, won the country's first democratic presidential elections, held on June 2, 1993. Ndadaye, the first Hutu to assume power in Burundi, was killed within months during a coup. The second Hutu president, Cyprien Ntaryamira, was killed on April 6, 1994, when a plane carrying him and the Rwandan president was shot down. As a result, Hutu youth gangs began massacring Tutsi; the Tutsi-controlled army retaliated by killing Hutus.

Capital:Bujumbura,National name: Republika y'u Burundi Languages: Kirundi 29.7% (official), Kirundi and other language 9.1%, French (official) and French and other language 0.3%, Swahili and Swahili and other language 0.2% (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area), English and English and other language 0.06%, more than 2 languages 3.7%, unspecified 56.9% (2008 est.) Ethnicity/race: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000 National Holiday: Independence Day, July 1 Religions: Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%, other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008 est.) Literacy rate: 67.2% (2010 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $5.75 billion; per capita $600. Real growth rate: 4.5%. Inflation:9.3%. Unemployment: n.a. Arable land: 33.06%. Agriculture: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides. Labor force: 4.245 million (2007); agriculture 93.6%, industry 2.3%, services 4.1% (2002 est.). Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing. Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone. Exports: $122.8 million (2013 est.): coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides. Imports: $867.2 million (2013 est.): capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs. Major trading partners: Belgium, Pakistan, U.S., Rwanda, U.K., Democratic Republic of the Congo, China, Egypt, India, Kenya, Tanzania, Italy, Uganda, Zambia (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 17,400 (2012); mobile cellular: 2.247 million (2012). Broadcast media: state-controlled La Radiodiffusion et Television Nationale de Burundi (RTNB) operates the lone TV station and the only national radio network; about 10 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in Bujumbura (2007). Internet hosts: 229 (2011). Internet users: 157,800 (2009). Transportation: Railways: 0 km. Highways: total: 12,322 km; paved: 1,286 (2004 est.). Waterways: mainly on Lake Tanganyika (2011). Ports and harbors: Bujumbura. Airports: 7 (2013). International disputes: Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region.

राजधानी बुजुम्बुरा

बुरुन्डी पूर्वी अफ्रीका में ग्रेट लेक क्षेत्र में स्थित एक देश है। इसकी सीमाएं उत्तर में रवांडा, दक्षिण और पूर्व में तंजानिया और पश्चिम में कांगो से मिलती हैं। भले ही यह देश लैंडलाक हो, लेकिन दक्षिण-पश्चिम सीमा लेक तंगान्यिका से लगी हुई हैं। पांच दशक पहले देश के गठन के दौरान से ही त्वा, तुत्सी और हुतु जनजातियों की मौजूदगी बनी हुई है। यहां जनजातियों के बीच 1993 से लेकर 2005 के बीच चले जातीय संघर्ष की वजह से करीबन 2 लाख लोगों की जान गई। वर्ष 2005 के बाद राजनैतिक स्थिरता आने के बाद देश प्रगति के पथ पर अग्रसर है।

 

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