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Chile

Chile

Geography: Situated south of Peru and west of Bolivia and Argentina, Chile fills a narrow 2,880-mi (4,506 km) strip between the Andes and the Pacific. One-third of Chile is covered by the towering ranges of the Andes. In the north is the driest place on Earth, the Atacama Desert, and in the center is a 700-mile-long (1,127 km) thickly populated valley with most of Chile's arable land. At the southern tip of Chile's mainland is Punta Arenas, the southernmost city in the world, and beyond that lies the Strait of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego, an island divided between Chile and Argentina. The southernmost point of South America is Cape Horn, a 1,390-foot (424 m) rock on Horn Island in the Wollaston group, which belongs to Chile. Chile also claims sovereignty over 482,628 sq mi (1,250,000 sq km) of Antarctic territory; the Juan Fernández Islands, about 400 mi (644 km) west of the mainland; and Easter Island, about 2,000 mi (3,219 km) west.

History: Chile was originally under the control of the Incas in the north and the nomadic Araucanos in the south. In 1541, a Spaniard, Pedro de Valdivia, founded Santiago. Chile won its independence from Spain in 1818 under Bernardo O'Higgins and an Argentinian, José de San Martin. O'Higgins, dictator until 1823, laid the foundations of the modern state with a two-party system and a centralized government. The dictator from 1830 to 1837, Diego Portales, fought a war with Peru from 1836—1839 that expanded Chilean territory. Chile fought the War of the Pacific with Peru and Bolivia from 1879 to 1883, winning Antofagasta, Bolivia's only outlet to the sea, and extensive areas from Peru. Pedro Montt led a revolt that overthrew José Balmaceda in 1891 and established a parliamentary dictatorship lasting until a new constitution was adopted in 1925. Industrialization began before World War I and led to the formation of Marxist groups. Juan Antonio Ríos, president during World War II, was originally pro-Nazi but in 1944 led his country into the war on the side of the Allies. In 1970, Salvador Allende became the first president in a non-Communist country freely elected on a Marxist program. Allende quickly established relations with Cuba and the People's Republic of China, introduced Marxist economic and social reforms, and nationalized many private companies, including U.S.-owned ones. In Sept. 1973, Allende was overthrown and killed in a military coup covertly sponsored by the CIA, ending a 46-year era of constitutional government in Chile.

Capital:Santiago,National name: República de Chile Language: Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2% note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2012 est.) Ethnicity/race: white and non-indigenous 88.9%, Mapuche 9.1%, Aymara 0.7%, other indigenous groups 1% (includes Rapa Nui, Likan Antai, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Kawesqar, Yagan or Yamana), unspecified 0.3% (2012 est.) National Holiday: Independence Day, September 18 Religions: Roman Catholic 66.7%, Evangelical or Protestant 16.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 3.4%, none 11.5%, unspecified 1.1% (2012 est.) Literacy rate: 98.6% (2009 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $335.4 billion; per capita $19,100. Real growth rate: 4.4%. Inflation:1.7%. Unemployment: 6%. Arable land: 1.74%. Agriculture: grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber. Labor force: 8.367 million; agriculture 13.2%, industry 23%, services 63.9% (2005). Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles. Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower. Exports: $77.94 billion (2013 est.): copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine. Imports: $75.7 billion (2013 est.): petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas. Major trading partners:U.S., Japan, China, South Korea, Brazil, Argentina (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 3.276 million (2012); mobile cellular: 24.13 million (2012).Broadcast media: national and local terrestrial TV channels, coupled with extensive cable TV networks; the state-owned Television Nacional de Chile (TVN) network is self financed through commercial advertising revenues and is not under direct government control; large number of privately owned TV stations; about 250 radio stations (2007).Internet hosts: 2.152 million (2012). Internet users: 7.009 million (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 7,082 km (2008). Highways: total: 77,764 (2010). Waterways: 725 km. Ports and harbors: Coronel, Huasco, Lirquen, Puerto Ventanas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Valparaiso. Airports: 481 (2013 est.). International disputes: Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile has offered instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian natural gas; Chile rejects Peru's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Peru; in October 2007, Peru took its maritime complaint with Chile to the ICJ; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001, has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur).

राजधानी सेंटियागो

चिली दक्षिण अमेरिकी में एंडिज पर्वत और प्रशांत महासागर के बीच स्थित लंबा और संकरा देश है। देश के उत्तर में पेरु, उत्तर-पूर्व में बोलीविया, पूर्व में अर्जेन्टीना और दक्षिण छोर पर ड्रेक पैसेज स्थित है। यह दक्षिण अमेरिका के उन दो देशों (दूसरा ईक्वाडोर) में से है, जिसकी सीमाएं ब्राजील से नहीं मिलती है। देश के पश्चिम का पूरा भाग प्रशांत महासागर से लगा हुआ है, जिसकी लंबाई 6,435 किमी से भी अधिक है। दक्षिण अमेरिका महाद्वीप के मध्य से दक्षिण छोर तक फैले इस देश की जलवायु में भी विविधता देखी जाती है।

भूगोल

चिली दक्षिणी गोलार्द्ध में स्थित एक देश है। उन्होंने खुद को एक सप्ताह में तीन महाद्वीपीय देश, यानी समझता पास या तीन महाद्वीपों पर प्रदेशों का दावा है। इस अर्थ में, क्षेत्र महाद्वीपीय चिली में बांटा गया है, द्वीपीय चिली, 'द्वीपीय चिली महाद्वीपीय' और 'द्वीपीय चिली समुद्रीय "और चिली अंटार्कटिक क्षेत्र में उपखंड, प्रादेशिक दावा संधि के प्रावधानों के अनुसार में निलंबित कर दिया है चिली उनके हस्ताक्षर के बिना, एक हस्ताक्षरकर्ता है, जिनमें से अंटार्कटिक, एक छूट का गठन किया।

अर्थव्यवस्था

सेंटियागो में चिली के केंद्रीय बैंक ने देश के लिए केंद्रीय बैंक के रूप में कार्य करता है। चिली मुद्रा चिली पीसो (CLP) है। चिली मानव विकास, प्रतिस्पर्धा, प्रति व्यक्ति आय, वैश्वीकरण, आर्थिक स्वतंत्रता और भ्रष्टाचार के कम धारणा में लैटिन अमेरिकी देशों के प्रमुख, दक्षिण अमेरिका के सबसे अधिक स्थिर और समृद्ध देशों में से एक है। जुलाई 2013 के बाद से, चिली, इसलिए एक विकसित देश के रूप में एक "उच्च आय अर्थव्यवस्था" के रूप में विश्व बैंक द्वारा माना जाता है और है।

संस्कृति

चिली की संस्कृति अपेक्षाकृत सजातीय आबादी के साथ ही दक्षिण अमेरिका के आराम करने के संबंध में देश की भौगोलिक अलगाव को दर्शाता है। औपनिवेशिक काल से, चिली संस्कृति स्वदेशी (ज्यादातर मापुचे) संस्कृति के साथ स्पेनिश औपनिवेशिक तत्वों का मिश्रण किया गया है।

 

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