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Geography:Colombia is bordered on the northwest by Panama, on the east by Venezuela and Brazil, and on the southwest by Peru and Ecuador. Through the western half of the country, three Andean ranges run north and south. The eastern half is a low, jungle-covered plain, drained by spurs of the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers, inhabited mostly by isolated tropical-forest Indian tribes. The fertile plateau and valley of the eastern range are the most densely populated parts of the country.

History :Little is known about the various Indian tribes who inhabited Colombia before the Spanish arrived. In 1510 Spaniards founded Darien, the first permanent European settlement on the American mainland. In 1538 they established the colony of New Granada, the area's name until 1861. After a 14-year struggle, during which time Simón Bolívar's Venezuelan troops won the battle of Boyacá in Colombia on Aug. 7, 1819, independence was attained in 1824. Bolívar united Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, and Ecuador in the Republic of Greater Colombia (1819–1830), but he lost Venezuela and Ecuador to separatists. Two political parties dominated the region: the Conservatives believed in a strong central government and a powerful church; the Liberals believed in a decentralized government, strong regional power, and a less influential role for the church. Bolívar was himself a Conservative, while his vice president, Francisco de Paula Santander, was the founder of the Liberal Party. Santander served as president between 1832 and 1836, a period of relative stability, but by 1840 civil war had erupted. Other periods of Liberal dominance (1849–1857 and 1861–1880), which sought to disestablish the Roman Catholic Church, were marked by insurrection. Nine different governments followed, each rewriting the constitution. In 1861, the country was called the United States of New Granada; in 1863 it became the United States of Colombia; and in 1885, it was named the Republic of Colombia. In 1899, a brutal civil war broke out, the War of a Thousand Days, that lasted until 1902. The following year, Colombia lost its claims to Panama because it refused to ratify the lease to the United States of the Canal Zone. Panama declared its independence in 1903.

Capital : Santafé de BogotáNational, name: República de Colombia Language: Spanish Ethnicity/race: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1% National Holiday: Independence Day, July 20 Religion: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10% Literacy rate: 93.6% (2011 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $526.5 billion; per capita $11,100. Real growth rate: 4.2%. Inflation:2.2%. Unemployment: 9.7%. Arable land: 1.84%. Agriculture: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp. Labor force: 23.75 million (2011); agriculture 17%, industry 21%, services 62% (2011 est.). Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds. Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower. Exports: $58.7 billion (2013 est.): petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers. Imports: $53.5 billion (2013 est.): industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity. Major trading partners: U.S., Venezuela, China, Mexico, Brazil, Netherlands, Panama, Spain (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 6.291 million (2012); mobile cellular: 49.066 million (2012). Broadcast media: combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media provide service; more than 500 radio stations and many national, regional, and local TV stations (2007). Internet hosts: 4,.41 million (2012).Internet users: 22.538 million (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 874 km (2008). Highways: total: 141,374 km; (2010). Waterways: 24,725 km (2012). Ports and harbors: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Muelles El Bosque, Puerto Bolivar, Santa Marta, Turbo. Airports: 836 (2013 est.). International disputes: in December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank.

राजधानी  बोगोटा 

कोलम्बिया दक्षिणी अमरीका महाद्वीप के उत्तर-पश्चिम में स्थित एक देश है। देश की राजधानी बोगोटा है। कोलम्बिया के पूर्व में वेनेजुएला और ब्राजील, दक्षिण में इक्वेडोर और पेरू, उत्तर में केरेबियन सागर, उत्तर पश्चिम में पनामा और पश्चिम में प्रशांत महासागर स्थित है। क्षेत्रफल के हिसाब से कोलंबिया दुनिया का 26वां और दक्षिण अमेरिकी महाद्वीप का चौथा बड़ा देश है। आबादी के लिहाज से कोलंबिया दुनिया का 29वां और दक्षिण अमेरिकी महाद्वीप में ब्राजील के बाद दूसरा सबसे बड़ा देश है। कोलम्बिया में मेक्सिको और ब्राजील के बाद स्पेनिश बोलने वाले सर्वाधिक लोग निवास करते हैं।कोलंबिया एक बहुसांस्कृतिक देश है। यहाँ के मूल निवासियों के अलवा पंद्रहवी शताब्दी में आये स्पेनिश और उन्नीसवी सदी में दास प्रथा के लिए लाये गए अफ़्रीकी लोगो की वजह से यह एक विविध सांस्कृतिक परम्परओं वाला देश है। बीसवी सदी में यूरोप और मध्य एशिया के भी लोगों के यहाँ आकर बसने से यहाँ उनकी संस्कृति की भी झलक मिलती है।





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