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Congo, Republic

Congo, Republic

Geography: The Congo is situated in west-central Africa astride the equator. It borders Gabon, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Angola exclave of Cabinda, with a short stretch of coast on the South Atlantic. Its area is nearly three times that of Pennsylvania. Most of the inland is tropical rain forest, drained by tributaries of the Congo River.


History:In precolonial times, the region now called the Republic of Congo was dominated by three kingdoms: Kongo (originating about 1000), the Loango (flourishing in the 17th century), and Tio. After the Portuguese located the Congo River in 1482, commerce was carried on with the tribes, especially the slave trade. The Frenchman Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza signed a treaty with Makoko, ruler of the Bateke people, in 1880, thus establishing French control. It was first called French Congo, and after 1905 Middle Congo. With Gabon and Ubangi-Shari, it became the colony of French Equatorial Africa in 1910. Abuse of laborers led to public outcry against the French colonialists as well as rebellions among the Congolese, but the exploitation of the native workers continued until 1930. During World War II, the colony joined Chad in supporting the Free French cause against the Vichy government. The Congo proclaimed its independence without leaving the French Community in 1960, calling itself the Republic of Congo. The Congo's second president, Alphonse Massemba-Débat, instituted a Marxist-Leninist government. In 1968, Maj. Marien Ngouabi overthrew him but kept the Congo on a Socialist course. He was sworn in for a second five-year term in 1975. A four-man commando squad assassinated Ngouabi on March 18, 1977. Col. Joachim Yhombi-Opango, army chief of staff, assumed the presidency on April 4. Yhombi-Opango resigned on Feb. 4, 1979, and was replaced by Col. Denis Sassou-Nguesso.

Capital:Brazzaville, National name: République du Congo Current government officials Languages: French (official), Lingala, Monokutuba, Kikongo, many local languages and dialects Ethnicity/race: Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3% National Holiday: Independence Day, August 15 Religions: Roman Catholic 33.1%, Awakening Churches/Christian Revival 22.3%, Protestant 19.9%, Salutiste 2.2%, Muslim 1.6%, Kimbanguiste 1.5%, other 8.1%, none 11.3% (2010 est.) Literacy rate: 83.8% (2003 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $20.26 billion; per capita $4,800. Real growth rate: 5.8%. Inflation:1.7%. Unemployment: 53% (2012). Arable land: 1.46%. Agriculture: cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products. Labor force: 2.89 million (2011) Industries: petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes. Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural gas, hydropower. Exports: $9.912 billion (2013 est.): petroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds. Imports: $4.297 billion (2013 est.): capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs. Major trading partners: China, U.S., France, Belgium, India, Australia, Spain, Italy, Netherlands (2004). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 14,900 (2012); mobile cellular: 4.283 million (2012). Broadcast media: 1 state-owned TV and 3 state-owned radio stations; several privately owned TV and radio stations; satellite TV service is available; rebroadcasts of several international broadcasters are available (2007). Internet hosts: 45 (2012). Internet users: 245,200 (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 886 km (2008). Highways: total: 17,289 km; (2004 est.). Waterways: 1,120 km (commercially navigable on Congo and Oubanqui rivers above Brazzaville; there are many ferries across the river to Kinshasa; the Congo south of Brazzaville-Kinshasa to the coast is not navigable because of rapids, thereby necessitating a rail connection to Pointe Noire; other rivers are used for local traffic only) (2011). Ports and harbors:Brazzaville, Djeno, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire. Airports: 27 (2013 est.). International disputes: the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Democratic Republic of the Congo is undefined except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area.

कांगो लोकतान्त्रिक गणराज्य अफ्रीका महाद्वीप के मध्य में स्थित देश है, जिसका कुछ भू-भाग अंध महासागर से मिलता है। क्षेत्रफल के लिहाज से यह देश अफ्रीका महाद्वीप का तीसरा सबसे बड़ा देश है। पड़ोसी देश कांगो गणराज्य से भिन्नता के लिए इस देश को अक्सर डीआर कांगो, डीआरसी या फिर राजधानी किंसासा के नाम पर कांगो-किंसासा के नाम से पुकारा जाता है। कांगो नाम कांगो नदी के नाम पर पड़ा है, जिसे जाएर नदी के नाम से भी जाना जाता है। कांगो भले ही मध्य अफ्रीका में बसा हो, लेकिन दक्षिण अफ्रीकी विकास समुदाय (एसएडीसी) नामक संगठन की बदौलत दक्षिणी अफ्रीका से आर्थिक और क्षेत्रीय रूप से जुड़ा हुआ है। इसकी सीमाएं उत्तर में मध्य अफ़्रीकी गणराज्य और सूडान, पूर्व में यूगांडा, रवांडा और अंगोला, पश्चिम में कांगो गणराज्य लगी हुई हैं। पूर्व में तंगानयिका झील इस देश कोतंजानिया से अलग करती है।

कांगो लोकतान्त्रिक गणराज्य क्षेत्रफल के अनुसार विश्व का ११वाँ सबसे बड़ा देश है और फ़्रान्सीसी भाषा बोलने वाला सबसे बड़ी आबादी वाला देश है।




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