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Croatia

Croatia

Geography:Croatia is a former Yugoslav republic on the Adriatic Sea. It is about the size of West Virginia. Part of Croatia is a barren, rocky region lying in the Dinaric Alps. The Zagorje region north of the capital, Zagreb, is a land of rolling hills, and the fertile agricultural region of the Pannonian Plain is bordered by the Drava, Danube, and Sava Rivers in the east. Over one-third of Croatia is forested.

Government:Presidential/parliamentary democracy. History Croatia, at one time the Roman province of Pannonia, was settled in the 7th century by the Croats. They converted to Christianity between the 7th and 9th centuries and adopted the Roman alphabet under the suzerainty of Charlemagne. In 925, the Croats defeated Byzantine and Frankish invaders and established their own independent kingdom, which reached its peak during the 11th century. A civil war ensued in 1089, which later led to the country being conquered by the Hungarians in 1091. The signing of the Pacta Conventa by Croatian tribal chiefs and the Hungarian king in 1102 united the two nations politically under the Hungarian monarch, but Croatia retained its autonomy. Following the defeat of the Hungarians by the Turks at the battle of Mohács in 1526, Croatia (along with Hungary) elected Austrian archduke Ferdinand of Hapsburg as their king. After the establishment of the Austro-Hungarian kingdom in 1867, Croatia became part of Hungary until the collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918 following its defeat in World War I. On Oct. 29, 1918, Croatia proclaimed its independence and joined in union with Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. When Germany invaded Yugoslavia in 1941, Croatia became a Nazi puppet state. Croatian Fascists, the Ustachi, slaughtered countless Serbs and Jews during the war. After Germany was defeated in 1945, Croatia was made into a republic of the newly reconstituted Communist nation of Yugoslavia; however, Croatian nationalism persisted. After Yugoslavian leader Josip Broz Tito's death in 1980, Croatia's demands for independence increased in intensity. In 1990, free elections were held, and the Communists were defeated by a nationalist party led by Franjo Tudjman. In June 1991, the Croatian parliament passed a declaration of independence from Yugoslavia. Six months of intensive fighting with the Serbian-dominated Yugoslavian army followed, claiming thousands of lives and wreaking mass destruction.

Capital: Zagreb,National Name: Republika Hrvatska Languages: Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.) Ethnicity/race: Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.) National Holiday: Independence Day, October 8 Religions: Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.) Literacy rate: 98.9% (2011 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $78.9 billion; per capita $17,800. Real growth rate: –1%. Inflation:2.2%. Unemployment: 21.6% (2013). Arable land: 15.85%. Agriculture: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products. Labor force: 1.715 million; agriculture 2.1%, industry 29%, services 69% (2012). Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism. Natural resources:oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower. Exports:$12.36 billion (2013 est.): transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels. Imports: $21.74 billion (2013 est.): machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs. Major trading partners: Italy, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Germany, Austria, Slovenia, Russia (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 1.64 million (2012); mobile cellular: 4.97 million (2012).Broadcast stations: the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision (HRT), operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; roughly 25 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 3 national radio networks and 9 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and more than 170 regional, county, city, and community radio stations (2012). Internet hosts: 729,420 (2012). Internet users: 2.234 million (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 2,722 km (2012). Roadways: total: 29,410 km; (2011). Waterways: 785 km (2009). Ports and harbors: Omisalj, Ploce, Rijeka, Sibenik, Vukovar (on Danube). Airports: 69 (2013 est.). International disputes: dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements

राजधानी जगरेब

क्रोएशिया दक्षिण पूर्व यूरोप यानि बाल्कन में पानोनियन प्लेन, और भूमध्य सागर के बीच बसा एक देश है। देश का दक्षिण और पश्चिमी किनारा एड्रियाटिक सागर से मिलता है। देश की राजधानी और सबसे बड़ा शहर जगरेब है, जो तट से भीतर स्थित है। एड्रियाटिक सागर ते किनारे कोई हज़ार द्वीप हैं, इस समुद्र के किनारे पर्यटन के लिए उपयुक्त परिस्थितियाँ हैं।पूर्व यूगोस्लाविविया के देश इनके पड़ोसी हैं जैसे - उत्तर में स्लोवेनिया और हंगरी, उत्तर पूर्व में सर्बिया, पूर्व में बॉस्निया और हर्ज़ेगोविना और दक्षिण पूर्व में मोंटेंग्रो से इसकी सीमाएं मिलती हैं। एड्रियाटिक सागर के पार इटली है (350 km) जिसका द्वितीय विश्वयुद्ध के दौरान यहाँ उपस्थिति थी। यहाँ के निवासी मुख्यतः क्रोएट हैं जो अपने आपको ह्राओत कहते हैं। यहाँ की भाषा भी पूर्वी स्लाविक वर्ग में आती है।आज जिसे क्रोएशिया के नाम से जाना जाता है, वहां सातवीं शताब्दी में क्रोट्स ने कदम रखा था। उन्होंने राज्य को संगठित किया। तामिस्लाव प्रथम का 925 ई. में राज्याभिषेक किया गया और क्रोएशिया राज्य बना। राज्य के रूप में क्रोएशिया ने अपनी स्वायत्तता करीबन दो शताब्दियों तक बरकरार रखी और राजा पीटर क्रेशमिर चतुर्थ और जोनीमिर के शासन के दौरान अपनी ऊंचाई पर पहुंचा। वर्ष 1102 में पेक्टा समझौता के माध्यम से क्रोएशिया के राजा ने हंगरी के राजा के साथ विवादास्पद समझौता किया। वर्ष 1526 में क्रोएशियन संसद ने फ्रेडिनेंड को हाउस आफ हाब्सबर्ग से सिहांसन पर आरुढ़ किया। 1918 में क्रोएशिया ने आस्ट्रिया-हंगरी से अलग होने की घोषणा कर यूगोस्लाविया राज्य में सहस्थापक के रुप में जुड़ गया। द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध के समय नाजियों ने क्रोएशिया के क्षेत्र पर कब्जा जमा स्वतंत्र राज्य क्रोएशिया की स्थापना की। युद्ध खत्म होने के बाद क्रोएशिया दूसरे यूगोस्लाविया के संस्थापक सदस्य के रूप में शामिल हो गया। 25 जून 1991 में क्रोएशिया ने स्वतंत्रता की घोषणा करते हुए संप्रभु राज्य बन गया।

भूगोल

मध्य में पहाड़ी और तट पर एड्रियाटिक का महत्वपूर्ण स्थान है। औसत तापमान -३ से १८ डिग्री तक रहता है। भूमध्य सागर के किनारे होने से तटीय इलाक़ों में भूमध्यसागरीय जलवायु है।

 

 

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