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United Kingdom

United Kingdom

Geography: The United Kingdom, consisting of Great Britain (England, Wales, andScotland ) and Northern Ireland , is twice the size of New York State. England, in the southeast part of the British Isles, is separated from Scotland on the north by the granite Cheviot Hills; from them the Pennine chain of uplands extends south through the center of England, reaching its highest point in the Lake District in the northwest. To the west along the border of Wales—a land of steep hills and valleys—are the Cambrian Mountains, while the Cotswolds, a range of hills in Gloucestershire, extend into the surrounding shires. Important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Thames, Humber, Tees, and Tyne. In the west are the Severn and Wye, which empty into the Bristol Channel and are navigable, as are the Mersey and Ribble.

Government :The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a queen and a parliament that has two houses: the House of Lords, with 574 life peers, 92 hereditary peers, and 26 bishops; and the House of Commons, which has 651 popularly elected members. Supreme legislative power is vested in parliament, which sits for five years unless dissolved sooner. The House of Lords was stripped of most of its power in 1911, and now its main function is to revise legislation. In Nov. 1999, hundreds of hereditary peers were expelled in an effort to make the body more democratic. The executive power of the Crown is exercised by the cabinet, headed by the prime minister. England has existed as a unified entity since the 10th century; the union between England and Wales, begun in 1284 with the Statute of Rhuddlan, was not formalized until 1536 with an Act of Union; in another Act of Union in 1707, England and Scotland agreed to permanently join as Great Britain ; the legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland was implemented in 1801, with the adoption of the name the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 formalized a partition of Ireland; six northern Irish counties remained part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland and the current name of the country, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was adopted in 1927.

History :Stonehenge and other examples of prehistoric culture are all that remain of the earliest inhabitants of Britain. Celtic peoples followed. Roman invasions of the 1st century B.C. brought Britain into contact with continental Europe. When the Roman legions withdrew in the 5th century A.D. , Britain fell easy prey to the invading hordes of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes from Scandinavia and the Low Countries. The invasions had little effect on the Celtic peoples of Wales and Scotland. Seven large Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were established, and the original Britons were forced into Wales and Scotland. It was not until the 10th century that the country finally became united under the kings of Wessex. Following the death of Edward the Confessor (1066), a dispute about the succession arose, and William, Duke of Normandy, invaded England, defeating the Saxon king, Harold II, at the Battle of Hastings (1066). The Norman conquest introduced Norman French law and feudalism.

Capital:London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Languages: English, Welsh, Scots, Scottish Gaelic Ethnicity/race: White 87.2%, Black/African/Caribbean/ 3%, Asian/Asian British: Indian 2.3%, Asian/Asian British: Pakistani 1.9%, mixed 2%, other 3.7% (2011 est.) Religions: Christian (includes Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 59.5%, Muslim 4.4%, Hindu 1.3%, other 2%, none 25.7%, unspecified 7.2% (2011 est.) Literacy rate: 99% (2003 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $2.387 trillion; per capita $37,300. Real growth rate: 1.8%. Inflation:2%. Unemployment: 7.2%. Arable land: 24.88%. Agriculture: cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish. Labor force: 30.15 million (2013 est.); agriculture 1.4%, industry 18.2%, services 80.4% (2006). Industries: machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goods. Natural resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, potash, silica sand, slate, arable land. Exports: $813.2 billion (2013 est.): manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco. Imports: $782.5 billion (2013 est.): manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs. Major trading partners:U.S., Germany, France, Ireland, Netherlands, Belgium, China, Norway (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 33.01 million (2012); mobile cellular: 82.109 million (2012). Radio broadcast stations: Public service broadcaster, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world; BBC operates multiple TV networks with regional and local TV service; a mixed system of public and commercial TV broadcasters along with satellite and cable systems provide access to hundreds of TV stations throughout the world; BBC operates multiple national, regional, and local radio networks with multiple transmission sites; a large number of commercial radio stations as well as satellite radio services are available (2008). Radios: 84.5 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 228 (plus 3,523 repeaters) (1995). Televisions:30.5 million (1997). Internet Hosts: 8.107 million (2012). Internet users: 51.444 million (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 16,454 km (2008). Highways: total: 394,428 km; paved: 394,428 km (including 3,519 km of expressways); unpaved: 0 km (2009). Waterways: 3,200 km. Ports and harbors: Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Falmouth, Felixstowe, Glasgow, Grangemouth, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Peterhead, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Scapa Flow, Southampton, Sullom Voe, Teesport, Tyne. Airports: 460 (2013). International disputes: In 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the UK and Spain; the Government of Gibraltar insisted on equal participation in talks between the two countries; Spain disapproved of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory); in 2001, the former inhabitants of the archipelago, evicted 1967 - 1973, were granted U.K. citizenship and the right of return, followed by Orders in Council in 2004 that banned rehabitation, a High Court ruling reversed the ban, a Court of Appeal refusal to hear the case, and a Law Lords' decision in 2008 denied the right of return; in addition, the United Kingdom created the world's largest marine protection area around the Chagos islands prohibiting the extraction of any natural resources therein; UK rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentina, which still claims the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 NM.

राजधानी: लंदन,

यूनाइटेड किंगडम (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) जौना के आमतौर पर यूके या ब्रिटेन कहल जाला यूरोप के एगो संप्रभु राज्य बाटे। यूरोपीय मुख्य भूमि के उत्तर-पच्छिमी किनारे पर मौजूद यूनाइटेड किंगडम के अंतर्गत, ग्रेट ब्रिटेन (जवना के नाँव बोलचाल में अक्सरहा पुरा देस खातिर इस्तेमाल कइ दिहल जाला) आ आयरलैंड दीप के उत्तरी पूरबी भाग, अ अउरी बहुत सारा छोट-छोट दीप आवेलें।उत्तरी आयरलैंड एक मात्र अइसन हिस्सा बाटे जवन कौनों दूसर राष्ट्र (आयरलैंड रिपब्लिक) के साथे जमीनी सीमा वाला बा। एह जमीनी सीमा के छोड़ दिहल जाव तब यूके चारों ओर से अटलांटिक महासागर से घेराइल बाटे, जहाँ एकरे पूरुब ओर नॉर्थ सागर, दक्खिन में इंग्लिश चैनल आ दक्खिन-दक्खिन पच्छिम में सेल्टिक सागर बाड़ें। ग्रेट ब्रिटेन आ आयरलैंड के बीच के समुंद्र के आयरिश सागर कहल जाला। क्षेत्रफल में 93,800 square miles (243,000 km2) बिस्तार वाला यूनाइटेड किंगडम दुनिया के ७८वाँ संप्रभु राज्य आ यूरोप में ११वाँ अस्थान पर बाटे। जनसंख्या के हिसाब से ई देस २१वाँ नम्बर के सभसे ढेर जनसंख्या वाला देस बाटे आ एकर जनसंख्या लगभग ६५.१ मिलियन बाटे।[१०] एही से ई यूरोपियन युनियन के चउथा सभसे घना आबादी वाला देस बाटे।

युनाइटेड किंगडम एगो en:constitutional monarchy (संबैधानिक राजतंत्र) हवे जहाँ संसदीय ब्यवस्था वाला शासन बाटे। एकर राजधानी लंदन, एगो महत्वपूर्ण बैस्विक शहर आ फाइनेंस के केन्द्र बाटे जहाँ के शहरी आबादी 10,310,000 बा आ ई यूरोप के चउथा सभसे बड़ा शहर बाटे। वर्तमान में एकर इहाँ के राजशाही के प्रमुख 6 फरवरी 1952 से महारानी एलिजाबेथ II बाड़ी। यूनाइटेड किंगडम में चार गो देस (country) आवे लें: इंग्लैंडस्कॉटलैंडवेल्स, आ उत्तरी आयरलैंड[१५] बाद के तीनों के प्रशासनिक स्वायत्तता दिहल गइल बाटे,हालांकि, ई तीनों खातिर अलग-अलग किसिम के बाटे आ इनहन के राजधानी, क्रम से एडिनबर्गकार्डिफ, आ बेलफास्ट बा। नगिचे के आइल्स ऑफ मैनबालिविक ऑफ गुएर्नसी आ बालिविक ऑफ जर्सी युनाइटेड किंगडम के हिस्सा ना हवे बलुक, en:Crown dependencies हवें ब्रिटिश सरकार इनहन के सुरक्षा आ अंतर्राष्ट्रीय प्रतिनिधित्व करे ला।

 

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