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Guinea

Guinea

Geography: Guinea, in West Africa on the Atlantic, is also bordered by Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Slightly smaller than Oregon, the country consists of a coastal plain, a mountainous region, a savanna interior, and a forest area in the Guinea Highlands. The highest peak is Mount Nimba at 5,748 ft (1,752 m).

History: Beginning in 900, the Susu migrated from the north and began settling in the area that is now Guinea. The Susu civilization reached its height in the 13th century. Today the Susu make up about 20% of Guinea's population. From the 16th to the 19th century, the Fulani empire dominated the region. In 1849, the French claimed it as a protectorate. First called Rivières du Sud, the protectorate was rechristened French Guinea; finally, in 1895, it became part of French West Africa. Guinea achieved independence on Oct. 2, 1958, and became an independent state with Sékou Touré as president. Under Touré, the country was the first avowedly Marxist state in Africa. Diplomatic relations with France were suspended in 1965, with the Soviet Union replacing France as the country's chief source of economic and technical assistance.

Capital, Conakry,National name: République de Guinée Current government officials Languages: French (official), native tongues (Malinké, Susu, Fulani) Ethnicity/race: Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller ethnic groups 10% Religions: Islam 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous 7% National Holiday: Independence Day, October 2 Literacy rate: 41% (2010 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2012 est.): $12.37 billion; per capita $1,100. Real growth rate: 3.9%. Inflation:15.2%. Unemployment: n.a. Arable land: 11.59%. Agriculture: rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (tapioca), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber. Labor force: 4.7 million (2012); agriculture 76%, industry and services 24% (2006 est.). Industries: bauxite, gold, diamonds; alumina refining; light manufacturing and agricultural processing industries. Natural resources: bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish. Exports: $1.348 billion (2012 est.): bauxite, alumina, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products.Imports: $2.606 billion (2012 est.): petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs. Major trading partners: India, Russia, Spain, France, US, Germany, Ireland, Denmark, Ukraine, China, Netherlands (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 18,000 (201); mobile cellular: 4.5 million (2011). Broadcast media: government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately-owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2011). Internet hosts: 15 (2012). Internet users: 95,000 (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 1,185 km (2008). Roadways: total: 44,348 km; paved: 4,342 km; unpaved: 40,006 km (2003). Waterways: 1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft) (2011). Ports and harbors: Kamsar.Airports: 16 (2012). International disputes: conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in neighboring states has spilled over into Guinea, resulting in domestic instability; Sierra Leone pressures Guinea to remove its forces from the town of Yenga occupied since 1998.

राजधानी कोनाक्री

गिनी, आधिकारिक तौर पर गिनी गणराज्य, पश्चिम अफ़्रीका में स्थित एक देश है, जिसे पूर्व में फ्रेंच गिनी के नाम से जाना जाता था। अर्द्ध चंद्राकार आकार का यह देश पूर्व से दक्षिण की ओर फैला हुआ है, जहां इसकी पश्चिमी सीमा अंध महासागर से मिलती है। अंध महासागर के अलावा गिनी-बिसाऊ भी देश के पश्चिम में स्थित है। अंदरूनी हिस्सों में उत्तरी सीमा पर सेनेगल और उत्तर और उत्तर-पूर्व में मालीस्थित है। दक्षिण पूर्व की ओर कोट द' आईवोर है, दक्षिण में लाइबेरिया और दक्षिण पश्चिम में सियेरा लियोन स्थित हैं। देश के मध्य से बहने वाली नाइजर नदी पानी के साथ-साथ जल परिवहन की सुविधा मुहैय्या कराती है।कोनाक्री देश का सबसे बड़ा शहर और राजधानी होने के साथ-साथ राष्ट्रीय सरकार का मुख्यालय भी है। देश को कभी-कभी पड़ोसी देश गिनी-बिसाउ से अलग बताने के लिए गिनी-कोनाक्री भी कहा जाता है। गिनी में चौबीस जातीय समूहों का वास है, जिनमें से तीन सबसे बड़े और सबसे प्रभावी समूह फुला, मंदिनका और सुसु हैं।

 

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