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Guyana

Guyana

Geography:Guyana is the size of Idaho and is situated on the northern coast of South America, east of Venezuela, west of Suriname, and north of Brazil. A tropical forest covers more than 80% of the country.

History :The Warrou people were the indigenous inhabitants of Guyana. The Dutch, English, and French established colonies in what is now known as Guyana, but by the early 17th century the majority of the settlements were Dutch. During the Napoleonic wars Britain took over the Dutch colonies of Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo, which became British Guiana in 1831. Slavery was outlawed in 1834, and the great need for plantation workers led to a large wave of immigration, primarily of East Indians. Today, about half of the population is of East Indian descent and about 36% are of African descent. In 1889, Venezuela voiced its claim to a large swath of Guyanese territory, but ten years later an international tribunal ruled the land belonged to British Guiana.

Capital: Georgetown,Languages: English (official), Amerindian dialects, Creole, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Urdu Ethnicity/race: East Indian 43.5%, black (African) 30.2%, mixed 16.7%, Amerindian 9.1%, other 0.5% (2002 census) Religions: Protestant 30.5% (Pentecostal 16.9%, Anglican 6.9%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Methodist 1.7%), Hindu 28.4%, Roman Catholic 8.1%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, Muslim 7.2%, other Christian 17.7%, other 4.3%, none 4.3% (2002 census) National Holiday: Republic Day, February 23 Literacy rate: 91.8% (2002 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $6.593 billion; per capita $8,500. Real growth rate: 5.3%. Inflation:3.9%. Unemployment: 11% (2007). Arable land: 1.95%. Labor force: 313,100 (2009 est.); agriculture n.a., industry n.a., services n.a. Agriculture: sugarcane, rice, wheat, vegetable oils; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish, shrimp. Industries: bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining. Natural resources: bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish. Exports: $1.337 billion (2013 est.): sugar, gold, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses, rum, timber. Imports: $2.039 billion (2013 est.): manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food. Major trading partners: Canada, U.S., UK, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba, China, Suriname (2012). Member of Commonwealth of Nations Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 154,200 (2012); mobile cellular: 547,000 (2012). Broadcast media: government-dominated broadcast media; the National Communications Network (NCN) TV is state-owned; a few private TV stations relay satellite services; the state owns and operates 2 radio stations broadcasting on multiple frequencies capable of reaching the entire country; government limits on licensing of new private radio stations continue to constrain competition in broadcast media (2007). Internet hosts: 24,936 (2012). Internet users:189,600 (2009). Transportation: Highways: total: 7,970 km; paved: 590 km; unpaved: 7,380 km (2000 est.). Waterways: 330 km (the Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km respectively) (2012) . Ports and terminals: Georgetown. Airports: 117 (2013). International disputes: all of the area west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Venezuela preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Guyana has expressed its intention to join Barbados in asserting claims before UNCLOS that Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into their waters; Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Guyana seeks arbitration under provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to resolve the long-standing dispute with Suriname over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially oil-rich waters.

गयाना या गुयाना दक्षिणी अमरीका मे एक देश है। इस का आधिकारिक नाम- 'कौपरेटिव रिपबलिक ओफ गुयाना' है। यह दक्षिण अमरीका के उत्तर-मध्य भाग मे हैं। 'गुयाना' शब्द का ऐतिहासिक प्रयोग हॉलैन्ड के तीन उपनिवेशो के लिये किया गया था। यह उपनिवेश थे- एस्सेक्यूबो, डेमेरारा और बेरबिस। वो एतिहासिक गयाना अमेज़न नदी के उत्तर मे था और ओरिनोको नदी के पुरव मे था।यहाँ पर भरतीय सबसे बाड़ी प्रजाती है। यह भरतीय प्रजाती के लोग यहाँ अंग्रेजो़ के शाशन काल मे आएँ। इस देश पर सबसे पहले हॉलैन्ड ने शाशन किया और फिर २०० साल तक अंग्रेजो़ ने इस पर शाशन किया।

इतिहास

यहाँ पर पहले देशी कबीलो- अरावक और कारिब का राज था। क्रिस्टोफ़र कोलम्बस ने गयाना को अपनी तिसरी यात्रा (1498) मे देखा था, परन्तु हॉलैन्ड पहला देश था जिसने यहाँ पर अपने उपनिवेश स्थापित किये: एस्सेक्यूबो (1616), बेरबिस (1627) और डेमेरारा (1752)। 18 वी सदि के अन्त तक ब्रिटेन ने इन तीनो उपनिवेशो पर अपना राज स्थापित किया और इसका नाम 'ब्रिटिश गुयाना' रख दिया।यहाँ काम करने के लिये ब्रिटेन ने अपने अन्य उपनिवेशो से मज़दूर गयाना मे लाए। अत: आधुनिक गयाना की तादात ज्यादा तर भारतीयों और अफरीकी लोगो से ही बनती है।गयाना को ब्रिटेन के २०० वर्षों के शाशन से 26 मई 1966 को मिली और 23 फ़रवरी 1970 को यह गणराज्य बना।

 

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