Geography Kiribati, formerly the Gilbert Islands, consists of three widely separated main groups of southwest Pacific islands: the Gilberts on the equator, the Phoenix Islands to the east, and the Line Islands farther east. Ocean Island, producer of phosphates until it was mined out in 1981, is also included in the 2 million square miles of ocean. Most of the islands of Kiribati are low-lying coral atolls built on a submerged volcanic chain and encircled by reefs.
History Kiribati was first settled by early Austronesian-speaking peoples long before the 1st century A.D . Fijians and Tongans arrived about the 14th century and subsequently merged with the older groups to form the traditional I-Kiribati Micronesian society and culture. The islands were first sighted by British and American ships in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and the first British settlers arrived in 1837. A British protectorate since 1892, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands became a Crown colony in 1915–1916. Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll became a part of the colony in 1919; the Phoenix Islands were added in 1937. Tarawa and others of the Gilbert group were occupied by Japan during World War II. Tarawa was the site of one of the bloodiest battles in U.S. Marine Corps history when marines landed in Nov. 1943 to dislodge the Japanese defenders. The Gilbert Islands and Ellice Islands (now Tuvalu) were separated in 1975 and granted internal self-government by Britain. Kiribati became independent on July 12, 1979.
Capital: Tarawa,Languages: English (official), I-Kiribati (Gilbertese) Ethnicity/race: I-Kiribati 89.5%, I-Kiribati/mixed 9.7%, Tuvaluan 0.1%, other 0.8% (2010 est.) Religions: Roman Catholic 55.8%, Kempsville Presbyterian Church 33.5%, Mormon 4.7%, Baha'i 2.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 2%, other 1.5%, none 0.2%, unspecified 0.05% (2010 est.) National Holiday: Independence Day, July 12 Literacy rate: n.a. Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $698 million; per capita $6,400. Real growth rate: 2.9%. Inflation:0.2%. Unemployment: 2%. Arable land: 2.47%. Agriculture: copra, taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; fish. Labor force: 7,870; economically active, not including subsistence farmers (2001 est.). Industries: fishing, handicrafts. Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979). Exports: $7.066 million (2010 est.): copra 62%, coconuts, seaweed, fish. Imports: $80.09 million (2004): foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous manufactured goods, fuel. Major trading partners: France, Japan, U.S., Thailand, Australia, Fiji, New Zealand (2004). Member of Commonwealth of Nations Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 9,000 (2012); mobile cellular: 16,000 (2012) Broadcast media: 1 TV broadcast station that provides about 1 hour of local programming Monday-Friday; multi-channel TV packages provide access to Australian and US stations; 1 government-operated radio station broadcasting on AM, FM, and shortwave (2009). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 327 (2012). Internet users: 7,800 (2009). Transportation: Railways: 0 km. Roadways: total: 670 km (2011 est.). Waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line Islands. Ports and terminals: Betio (Tarawa Atoll), Canton Island, English Harbor. Airports:19. International disputes: none.
राजधानी दक्षिण तरावा
किरिबाती, आधिकारिक तौर पर किरिबाती गणराज्य, मध्य उष्णकटिबंधीय प्रशांत महासागर में स्थित एक द्वीप देश है। यह ३५,००,००० वर्ग किलोमीटर (१३,५१,००० वर्ग मील) में बिखरे ३२ द्वीपों (एटॉल) और एक उठे हुए प्रवाल द्वीप से बना देश है। भूमध्य रेखा में विस्तारित इस देश के पूर्व से अंतरराष्ट्रीय तिथि रेखा गुजरती है। किरिबाती को स्थानीय जबान में "गिल्बेर्ट्स" कहा जाता है, जो मुख्य द्वीप श्रृंखला गिल्बर्ट द्वीप से ली गई है। किरिबाती 1979 में ब्रिटेन से स्वतंत्र हुआ। यह राष्ट्रमंडल, अंतरराष्ट्रीय मुद्रा कोष व विश्व बैंक का सदस्य है, १९९९ में यह देश संयुक्त राष्ट्र का पूर्ण सदस्य बन गया।