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Korea, North

Korea, North

Geography Korea is a 600-mile (966km) peninsula jutting out from Manchuria and China (and a small portion of the USSR). North Korea occupies an area—slightly smaller than Pennsylvania—north of the 38th parallel. The country is almost completely covered by a series of north-south mountain ranges separated by narrow valleys. The Yalu River forms part of the northern border with Manchuria.

Government Authoritarian socialist; one-man dictatorship. History The ancient history of the Korean peninsula can be traced to the Neolithic Age, when Turkic-Manchurian-Mongol peoples migrated into the region from China. The first agriculturally based settlements appeared around 6000 B.C.Some of the larger communities of this era were established along the Han-gang River near modern-day Seoul, others near Pyongyang and Pusan. According to ancient lore, Korea's earliest civilization, known as Choson, was founded in 2333 B.C. by Tan-gun. In the 17th century, Korea became a vassal state of China and was cut off from outside contact until the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. Following Japan's victory, Korea was granted independence. By 1910, Korea had been annexed by Japan, which developed the country but never won over the Korean nationalists, who continued to agitate for independence.

Capital: Pyongyang, National name: Choson Minjujuui Inmin Konghwaguk Language: Korean Ethnicity/race: racially homogeneous; small Chinese community, a few ethnic Japanese Religions: traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist, some Christian and syncretic Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way) National Holiday: Founding of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, September 9 Literacy rate: 99% (1991 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $40 billion note: North Korea does not publish any reliable National Income Accounts data; the datum shown here is derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP estimates for North Korea that were made by Angus MADDISON in a study conducted for the OECD; his figure for 1999 was extrapolated to 2007 using estimated real growth rates for North Korea's GDP and an inflation factor based on the US GDP deflator; the result was rounded to the nearest $10 billion; per capita $1,800. Real growth rate: 4%.Inflation: n.a. Unemployment: n.a. Arable land: 22.4% (2005). Agriculture: rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; cattle, pigs, pork, eggs. Labor force: 12.2 million; agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%. Industries: military products; machine building, electric power, chemicals; mining (coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals), metallurgy; textiles, food processing; tourism. Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower. Exports: $2.557 billion (2010 est.): minerals, metallurgical products, manufactures (including armaments), textiles, fishery products. Imports: $3.529 billion (2010 est.): petroleum, coking coal, machinery and equipment; textiles, grain. Major trading partners: China, South Korea, Bangladesh, Russia (2010). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 1.18 million (2008); mobile cellular: n.a. Broadcast media: no independent media; radios and TVs are pre-tuned to government stations; 4 government-owned TV stations; the Korean Workers' Party owns and operates the Korean Central Broadcasting Station, and the state-run Voice of Korea operates an external broadcast service; the government prohibits listening to and jams foreign broadcasts (2008).Internet hosts: 7 (2010). Internet users: n.a. Transportation: Railways: total: 5,242 km (2009). Roadways: total: 25,554 km; paved: 724 km; unpaved: 24,830 km (2006). Waterways: 2,250 km; mostly navigable by small craft only. Ports and harbors: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam (Hamhung), Kimch'aek, Kosong, Najin, Namp'o, Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong (formerly Unggi), Ungsang, Wonsan. Airports: 81 (2012). International disputes: risking arrest, imprisonment, and deportation, tens of thousands of North Koreans cross into China to escape famine, economic privation, and political oppression; North Korea and China dispute the sovereignty of certain islands in Yalu and Tumen rivers; Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km-wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents in the Yellow Sea with South Korea which claims the Northern Limiting Line as a maritime boundary; North Korea supports South Korea in rejecting Japan's claim to Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima).

राजधानी: प्योंगयांग,

उत्तर कोरिया, आधिकारिक रूप से कोरिया जनवादी लोकतांत्रिक गणराज्य (हंगुल: 조선 민주주의 인민 공화국, हांजा:朝鲜民主主义人民共和国) पूर्वी एशिया में कोरिया प्रायद्वीप के उत्तर में बसा हुआ देश है। देश की राजधानी और सबसे बड़ा शहर प्योंगयांग है। कोरिया प्रायद्वीप के 38 वां समानांतर पर बनाया गया कोरियाई सैन्यविहीन क्षेत्र उत्तर कोरिया और दक्षिण कोरिया के बीच विभाजन रेखा के रूप में कार्य करता है। अमनोक नदी और तुमेन नदी उत्तर कोरिया और चीन के बीच सीमा का निर्धारण करती है, वहीं धुर उत्तर-पूर्वी छोर पर तुमेन नदी की एक शाखा रूस के साथ सीमा बनती है।

इतिहास

सन् १९०५ में रुसो-जापान युद्ध के बाद जापान द्वारा कब्जा किए जाने के पहले प्रायद्वीप पर कोरियाई साम्राज्य का शासन था। सन् १९४५ में द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध की समाप्ति के बाद यह सोवियत संघ और अमेरिका के कब्जे वाले क्षेत्रों में बांटा दिया गया। उत्तर कोरिया ने संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ की पर्यवेक्षण में सन् १९४८ में दक्षिण में हुए चुनाव में भाग लेने से इंकार कर दिया, जिसके परिणामस्वरूप दो कब्जे वाले क्षेत्रों में अलग कोरियाई सरकारों का गठन हुआ। उत्तर और दक्षिण कोरिया दोनों ही पूरे प्रायद्वीप पर संप्रभुता का दावा किया, जिसकी परिणति सन् १९५० में कोरियाई युद्ध के रूप में हुई। सन् 1953 में हुए युद्धविराम के बाद लड़ाई तो खत्म हो गई, लेकिन दोनों देश अभी भी आधिकारिक रूप से युद्धरत हैं, क्योंकि शांतिसंधि पर कभी हस्ताक्षर नहीं किए गए। दोनों देशों को सन् १९९१ में संयुक्त राष्ट्र में स्वीकार किया गया। २६ मई २००९ में उत्तर कोरिया ने एकतरफा युद्धविराम वापस ले लिया।

 

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