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Laos

Laos

Geography: A landlocked nation in Southeast Asia occupying the northwest portion of the Indochinese peninsula, Laos is surrounded by China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, and Burma. It is twice the size of Pennsylvania. Laos is a mountainous country, especially in the north, where peaks rise above 9,000 ft (2,800 m). Dense forests cover the northern and eastern areas. The Mekong River, which forms the boundary with Burma and Thailand, flows through the country for 932 mi (1,500 km) of its course.

Government: Communist state.

History :The Lao people migrated into Laos from southern China from the 8th century onward. In the 14th century, the first Laotian state was founded, the Lan Xang kingdom, which ruled Laos until it split into three separate kingdoms in 1713. During the 18th century, the three kingdoms came under Siamese (Thai) rule and, in 1893, became a French protectorate. With its territory incorporated into Indochina. A strong nationalist movement developed during World War II, but France reestablished control in 1946 and made the king of Luang Prabang constitutional monarch of all Laos. France granted semiautonomy in 1949 and then, spurred by the Viet Minh rebellion in Vietnam, full independence within the French Union in 1950. In 1951, Prince Souphanouvong organized the Pathet Lao, a Communist independence movement, in North Vietnam. Viet Minh and Pathet Lao forces invaded central Laos, resulting in civil war. By the Geneva Agreements of 1954 and an armistice of 1955, two northern provinces were given to the Pathet Lao; the rest went to the royal regime. Full sovereignty was given to the kingdom by the Paris Agreements of Dec. 29, 1954. In 1957, Prince Souvanna Phouma, the royal prime minister, and Pathet Lao leader Prince Souphanouvong, the prime minister's half-brother, agreed to reestablishment of a unified government, with Pathet Lao participation and integration of Pathet Lao forces into the royal army. The agreement broke down in 1959, and armed conflict began anew. In 1960, the struggle became a three-way fight as Gen. Phoumi Nosavan, controlling the bulk of the royal army, set up in the south a pro-Western revolutionary government headed by Prince Boun Oum. General Phoumi took Vientiane in December, driving Souvanna Phouma into exile in Cambodia. The Soviet bloc supported Souvanna Phouma. In 1961, a cease-fire was arranged and the three princes agreed to a coalition government headed by Souvanna Phouma.

Capital: Vientiane, National name: Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao Languages: Lao (official), French, English, various ethnic languages Ethnicity/race: Lao 55%, Khmou 11%, Hmong 8%, other (over 100 minor ethnic groups) 26% (2005 census) Religions: Buddhist 67%, Christian 1.5%, other and unspecified 31.5% (2005 census) National Holiday: Republic Day, December 2 Literacy rate: 72.7% (2005 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $20.78 billion; per capita $3,100. Real growth rate: 8.3%. Inflation:6.5%. Unemployment: 1.9% . Arable land: 5.91%. Agriculture: sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, tea, peanuts, rice; water buffalo, pigs, cattle, poultry. Labor force: 3.373 million (2013 est.); agriculture 75.1%, industry and services NA (2001 est.). Industries: copper, tin, and gypsum mining; timber, electric power, agricultural processing, construction, garments, tourism, cement. Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones. Exports: $2.313 billion (2011 est.): garments, wood products, coffee, electricity, tin. Imports: $3.238 billion (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, consumer goods. Major trading partners: Thailand, Vietnam, China, (2011) . Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 112,000 (2012); mobile cellular: 6.492 (2012). Broadcast media:6 TV stations operating out of Vientiane - 3 government-operated and the others commercial; 17 provincial stations operating with nearly all programming relayed via satellite from the government-operated stations in Vientiane; Chinese and Vietnamese programming relayed via satellite from Lao National TV; broadcasts available from stations in Thailand and Vietnam in border areas; multi-channel satellite and cable TV systems provide access to a wide range of foreign stations; state-controlled radio with state-operated Lao National Radio (LNR) broadcasting on 5 frequencies - 1 AM, 1 SW, and 3 FM; LNR's AM and FM programs are relayed via satellite constituting a large part of the programming schedules of the provincial radio stations; Thai radio broadcasts available in border areas and transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are also accessible (2012). Internet Service Providers (ISPs):1,532 (2012). Internet users: 300,000 (2009). Transportation: Railways: 0 km. Highways: total: 39,568 km; paved: 530 km; unpaved: 39,038 km (2007 est.). Waterways: about 4,600 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897 additional km are sectionally navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m. Ports and harbors: none. Airports: 41 (2013). International disputes: southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Thailand but disputes remain over islands in the Mekong River; concern among Mekong River Commission members that China's construction of dams on the Mekong River and its tributaries will affect water levels; Cambodia and Vietnam are concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction. National name: Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao Current government officials Languages: Lao (official), French, English, various ethnic languages Ethnicity/race: Lao 55%, Khmou 11%, Hmong 8%, other (over 100 minor ethnic groups) 26% (2005 census) Religions: Buddhist 67%, Christian 1.5%, other and unspecified 31.5% (2005 census) National Holiday: Republic Day, December 2 Literacy rate: 72.7% (2005 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $20.78 billion; per capita $3,100. Real growth rate: 8.3%. Inflation:6.5%. Unemployment: 1.9% . Arable land: 5.91%. Agriculture: sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, tea, peanuts, rice; water buffalo, pigs, cattle, poultry. Labor force: 3.373 million (2013 est.); agriculture 75.1%, industry and services NA (2001 est.). Industries: copper, tin, and gypsum mining; timber, electric power, agricultural processing, construction, garments, tourism, cement. Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones. Exports: $2.313 billion (2011 est.): garments, wood products, coffee, electricity, tin. Imports: $3.238 billion (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, consumer goods. Major trading partners: Thailand, Vietnam, China, (2011) . Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 112,000 (2012); mobile cellular: 6.492 (2012). Broadcast media:6 TV stations operating out of Vientiane - 3 government-operated and the others commercial; 17 provincial stations operating with nearly all programming relayed via satellite from the government-operated stations in Vientiane; Chinese and Vietnamese programming relayed via satellite from Lao National TV; broadcasts available from stations in Thailand and Vietnam in border areas; multi-channel satellite and cable TV systems provide access to a wide range of foreign stations; state-controlled radio with state-operated Lao National Radio (LNR) broadcasting on 5 frequencies - 1 AM, 1 SW, and 3 FM; LNR's AM and FM programs are relayed via satellite constituting a large part of the programming schedules of the provincial radio stations; Thai radio broadcasts available in border areas and transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are also accessible (2012). Internet Service Providers (ISPs):1,532 (2012). Internet users: 300,000 (2009). Transportation: Railways: 0 km. Highways: total: 39,568 km; paved: 530 km; unpaved: 39,038 km (2007 est.). Waterways: about 4,600 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897 additional km are sectionally navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m. Ports and harbors: none. Airports: 41 (2013). International disputes: southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Thailand but disputes remain over islands in the Mekong River; concern among Mekong River Commission members that China's construction of dams on the Mekong River and its tributaries will affect water levels; Cambodia and Vietnam are concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction.

राजधानीविनतिएन,

लाओस (आधिकारिक रूप से लाओस जनवादी लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्रदक्षिण पूर्व एशिया में स्थित एक देश है। इसकी सीमाएं उत्तर पश्चिम में म्यान्मार और चीन से, पूर्व में कंबोडिया, दक्षिण में वियतनामऔर पश्चिम में थाईलैंड से मिलती है। इसे हजार हाथियो की भूमि भी कहा जाता है।

लाओस दक्षिण पूर्वी एशिया में हिंदचीन प्रायद्वीप पर स्थित देश है। इसका क्षेत्रफल ८८,७८० वर्ग मील है। इसके उत्तर में चीन एवं उत्तरी वियतनाम, दक्षिण में कंबोडिया, दक्षिण पश्चिम में थाईलैंड की सीमा परमेकांग नदी बहती है। जलवायु उष्णकटिबंधीय है। अप्रैल सबसे गरम मास है। ताप २२ डिग्री से ३४डिग्री सें. के मध्य रहता है। लाओस का लगभग २/३ भाग जंगलों से ढँका है। जगंलों में हाथी, तेंदुआ, चीता एवं सर्प आदि मिलते हैं। यहाँ की भाषा थाई प्रकार की है, जिसमें संस्कृतपाली तथा फ्रांसीसी शब्दों की भरमार है। फ्रांसीसी राजकाज की द्वितीय भाषा है। बौद्ध धर्म प्रमुख है। धान सर्वप्रमुख कृषि उपज है। सब्जियों में ककड़ी, टमाटर, प्याज, फलियाँ (बीन) एवं मिर्च आदि उगाई जाती हैं। अन्य कृषि उत्पादों में इलायची, मक्का, काफी, चाय, कपास, पटुवा तथा तंबाकू का स्थान आता है। पहाड़ी भागों में अफीमके पौधे भी उगाए जाते हैं। टिन तथा सेंधा नमक प्रमुख खनिज हैं। ऐंटिमनी, ताँबा, कोयला, सोना, जिप्सम लोहा, सीसा, मैंगनीज़, पाइराइट, गंधक एवं बहुमूल्य पत्थरों के प्राप्त होने की भविष्य में आशा है। यातायात एवं शक्ति के साधनों की कमी के कारण उद्योग कम उन्नति कर पाए हैं। थोड़ी मात्रा में खान खोदने, लकड़ी चीरने, सीमेंट निर्माण, तंबाकू, धान एवं फर्नीचर संबंधी उद्योग होते हैं। यहाँ की राजधानी वियेंटाइन है।

इतिहास

लाओस का इतिहास लान श्यांग साम्राज्य या एक लाख हाथियों की भूमि में समाया हुआ है, जो १४ वीं से १८ वीं सदी के बीच अस्तित्व में था।

फ्रेंच संरक्षित राज्य के रूप में एक अवधि के बाद इसने १९४९ में स्वतंत्रता हासिल की। कम्युनिस्ट पाथेट लाओ आंदोलन के सत्ता में १९७५ में आने के बाद एक लंबा गृहयुद्ध आधिकारिक रूप से समाप्त हुआ, लेकिन गुटों के बीच कई वर्षों तक संघर्ष जारी रहा। देश की १०.६% आबादी आज भी प्रति दिन 1.25 अमेरिकी डॉलर (अंतर्राष्ट्रीय गरीबी रेखा) से नीचे जीवनबसर करती है।

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