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Liberia

Liberia

Geography Lying on the Atlantic in the southern part of West Africa, Liberia is bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Côte d'Ivoire. It is comparable in size to Tennessee. Most of the country is a plateau covered by dense tropical forests, which thrive under an annual rainfall of about 160 in. a year.

Government Republic.

History Africa's first republic, Liberia was founded in 1822 as a result of the efforts of the American Colonization Society to settle freed American slaves in West Africa. The society contended that the emigration of blacks to Africa was an answer to the problem of slavery and the incompatibility of the races. Over the course of forty years, about 12,000 slaves were voluntarily relocated. Originally called Monrovia, the colony became the Free and Independent Republic of Liberia in 1847. The English-speaking Americo-Liberians, descendants of former American slaves, make up only 5% of the population, but have historically dominated the intellectual and ruling class. Liberia's indigenous population is composed of 16 different ethnic groups. The government of Africa's first republic was modeled after that of the United States, and Joseph Jenkins Roberts of Virginia was elected the first president. Ironically, Liberia's constitution denied indigenous Liberians equal to the lighter-skinned American immigrants and their descendants. After 1920, considerable progress was made toward opening up the interior of the country, a process that facilitated by the 1951 establishment of a 43-mile (69-km) railroad to the Bomi Hills from Monrovia. In July 1971, while serving his sixth term as president, William V. S. Tubman died following surgery and was succeeded by his longtime associate, Vice President William R. Tolbert, Jr.

Capital: Monrovia,Languages: English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic group languages few of which can be written or used in correspondence Ethnicity/race: Kpelle 20.3%, Bassa 13.4%, Grebo 10%, Gio 8%, Mano 7.9%, Kru 6%, Lorma 5.1%, Kissi 4.8%, Gola 4.4%, other 20.1% (2008 Census) Religions: Christian 85.6%, Muslim 12.2%, Traditional 0.6%, other 0.2%, none 1.4% (2008 Census) National Holiday: Independence Day, July 26 Literacy rate: 60.8% (2010 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $2.898 billion; per capita $700. Real growth rate: 8.1%. Inflation:5.2%. Unemployment: 85% (2003 est.). Arable land: 4.04%. Agriculture: rubber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, sugarcane, bananas; sheep, goats; timber. Labor force: 1.372 million (2007): agriculture 70%, industry 8%, services 22% (2000 est.). Industries: rubber processing, palm oil processing, timber, diamonds. Natural resources: iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold, hydropower. Exports: $929.8 million (2013 est.): rubber, timber, iron, diamonds, cocoa, coffee. Imports: $2.457 billion (2013 est.): fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods; foodstuffs. Major trading partners: South Korea, Japan, China, Spain, Algeria, Thailand, Malaysia, France, Singapore (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 3,200 (2011); mobile cellular: 2.394 million (2012). Broadcast media: 3 private TV stations; satellite TV service available; 1 state-owned radio station; about 15 independent radio stations broadcasting in Monrovia, with another 25 local stations operating in other areas; transmissions of 2 international broadcasters are available (2007). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7 (2012). Internet users: 20,000 (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 429 km; note: most sections of the railways were inoperable because of damage suffered during the civil wars from 1980 to 2003, but many are being rebuilt (2008). Highways: total: 10,600 km; paved: 657 km; unpaved: 9,943 km (2000 est.). Ports and harbors: Buchanan, Monrovia. Airports: 28 (2013). International disputes: although civil unrest continues to abate with the assistance of 6,500 UN Mission in Liberia peacekeepers, as of January 2013, Liberian refugees still remain in Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, and Ghana; Liberia, in turn, shelters refugees fleeing turmoil in Cote d'Ivoire; despite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces in Cote d'Ivoire since 2004, ethnic conflict continues to spread into neighboring states who can no longer send their migrant workers to Ivorian cocoa plantations; UN sanctions ban Liberia from exporting diamonds and timber.

राजधानी: मोनरोविया,

लाइबेरिया, आधिकारिक तौर पर लाइबेरिया गणराज्य, अफ़्रीका के पश्चिमी तट पर स्थित एक देश है, जिसकी सीमाएं सियरा लिओन, गिनी, कोट द आइवोर और प्रशांत महासागर से मिलती है।लाइबेरिया का मौसम ऊष्णकटिबंधीय है, जहां ज्यादातर वर्षा ग्रीष्म ऋतु के दौरान होती है। लाइबेरिया का ज्यादा बसाहट वाला पीपर कोस्ट मेंग्रोव फारेस्ट से बना हुआ है, जबकि अंदरुनी कम बसाहट वाला क्षेत्र वनक्षेत्र है, आगे जाकर नजर आने वाला पठारी क्षेत्र घास का मैदान है।लाइबेरिया का इतिहास संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका से जुड़ाव की वजह से अन्य अफ्रीकी देशों से जुदा है। यह उन गिने-चुने देशों में और पश्चिमी अफ्रीका के इकलौता देश है, जिसके मूल में कोई यूरोपीय देश नहीं है। 1821-22 में अमेरिकन कालोनाइजेशन सोसायटी द्वारा स्थापित एक बस्ती के रूप में यहां संयुक्त राज्य में छुड़ाए गए दासों को लाकर रखा जाता था, इस उम्मीद से कि यहां उन्हें ज्यादा स्वतंत्रता और समानता मिलेगी।इन मुक्त दासों ने एक प्रबुद्ध समाज बनाकर 1847 में लाइबेरिया गणराज्य का गठन किया और संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका की तर्ज पर सरकार बनाई। अमेरिका के पांचवें राष्ट्रपति जेम्स मोनरोई के नाम पर राजधानी मोनरोई बनाई।1980 में सेना ने तख्ता पलट कर राष्ट्रपति विलियम आर. टालबोर्ट को पद से हटा दिया। इसके साथ ही अस्थिरता का दौर शुरू हुआ, जो बाद में गृहयुद्ध में तब्दील हो गया, जिसमें हजारों-लाखों लोगों को जहां जान गंवानी पड़ी, वहीं देश की अर्थव्यवस्था बर्बादी के कगार पर पहुंच गई। आज लाइबेरिया गृहयुद्ध और आर्थिक अव्यवस्था से उबरने का प्रयास कर रहा है।

 

 

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