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Geography: Tiny Liechtenstein, not quite as large as Washington, DC, lies on the east bank of the Rhine River, south of Lake Constance, between Austria and Switzerland. It consists of low valley land and alpine peaks. Falknis (8,401 ft; 2,561 m) and Naafkopf (8,432 ft; 2,570 m) are the tallest.

Government: Hereditary constitutional monarchy.

History: The Liechtensteiners are descended from the Alemanni tribe that came into the region after A.D. 500. Founded in 1719, Liechtenstein was a member of the German Confederation from 1815 to 1866, when it became an independent principality. It abolished its army in 1868 and has managed to stay neutral and undamaged in all European wars since then. Liechtenstein still claims 1,600 sq km of Czech territory (the royal family's ancestral home) confiscated in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution does not go back before Feb. 1948, when the Communists seized power. In a referendum on July 1, 1984, male voters granted women the right to vote in national (but not local) elections. Blacklisted in 2000 as a center for money laundering, Liechtenstein toughened its laws and made major efforts to clean up its financial practices. In 2002, the country was removed from the OECD's (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) blacklist. In March 2003, their people overwhelmingly voted to give its prince more power, including the right to dismiss governments and approve judicial nominees. Prince Hans Adam II had threatened to leave the country if his demands for more authority were not met, though he already possessed more power than any other European monarch. In Aug. 2003 the prince announced that he would give up the day-to-day ruling of the country in one year's time. In Aug. 2004, his son, Prince Alois, 36, became regent of Liechtenstein, while Hans Adam II remained the official head of state. Klaus Tschuetscher won the absolute majority in parliamentary elections in Jan. 2009. He was sworn in as prime minister in March 2009. On February 3, 2013, the Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP) won parliamentary elections with 40% of the vote. Adrian Hasler, FBP's candidate for prime minister, would be sworn in March 2013.

Capital: Vaduz, Languages: German 94.5% (official) (Alemannic is the main dialect), Italian 1.1%, other 4.3% (2010 est.) Ethnicity/race:Liechtensteiner 65.6%, other 34.4% (2000 census) Religions: Roman Catholic (official) 75.9%, Protestant Reformed 6.5%, Muslim 5.4%, Lutheran 1.3%, other 2.9%, none 5.4%, unspecified 2.6% (2010 est.) National Holiday: Assumption Day, August 15 Literacy rate: 100% Economic summary:GDP/PPP (2009 est.): $3.2 billion; per capita $89,400 (2009). Real growth rate:1.8% (2012). Inflation: -0.7% (2012). Unemployment: 2.8% (2009). Arable land: 21.88%. Agriculture: wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products. Labor force: 35,830 note: 51% of the labor force in Liechtenstein commute daily from Austria, Switzerland, or Germany (2010) ; industry 39.4%, services 59.9%, agriculture 0.8% (2012). Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments. Natural resources: hydroelectric potential, arable land. Exports:$3.801 billion (2010): small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products. Imports: $2.09 billion (2012): agricultural products, raw materials, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles. Major trading partners: EU (Germany, Austria, France, Italy, UK), U.S., Switzerland (2004). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 20,000 (2012); mobile cellular: 38,000 (2012). Broadcast media: relies on foreign terrestrial and satellite broadcasters for most broadcast media services; first Liechtenstein-based TV station established August 2008; Radio Liechtenstein operates multiple radio stations; a Swiss-based broadcaster operates several radio stations in Liechtenstein (2008). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 14,278 (2012). Internet users: 23,000 (2009). Transportation: Railways:total: 9 km; note: owned, operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways (2008). Roadways:total: 380 km (2012); paved: 380 km. Ports and harbors:none. Airports: none. International disputes: none

राजधानी: वादुज,

लीख़्टेनश्टाइन (जर्मन: Fürstentum Liechtenstein) पश्चिमी यूरोप में स्थित एक छोटा लैंडलॉक देश है। इसकी सीमा पश्चिम और दक्षिण में स्विटजरलैंड और पूर्व मेंआस्ट्रिया से मिलती है। महज 160 वर्ग किमी (करीब 61.7 वर्ग मील) वाले इस देश की आबादी करीब 35,000 है। यहां की राजधानी वादुज और सबसे बड़ा शहर श्चान है।लीख़्टेनश्टाइन दुनिया का जर्मन भाषी इकलौता अल्पाइन राज्य है, जो पूरी तरह से आलप्स पर स्थित है। यह इकलौता जर्मनभाषी राज्य है, जिसकी सीमा जर्मनी से नहीं मिलती है। यह संवैधानिक राजशाही है, जो 11 निगम इकायों में विभाजित है। पर्वतीय भू-संरचना की वजह से लीख़्टेनश्टाइन शीत खेलों के लिए लोकप्रिय स्थल है। मजबूत वित्तीय व्यवस्था वाले इस देश को कर के मामले में स्वर्ग माना जाता है। यह यूरोपीय मुक्त व्यापार संगठन का सदस्य है, लेकिन यूरोपीय संघ का हिस्सा नहीं है।इसकी पश्चिमी सीमा पर राइन नदी बहती है। यहाँ के निम्न प्रदेश का वार्षिक औसत ताप लगभग ८डिग्री सें. रहता है। यहाँ की वार्षिक औसत वर्षा ३५ इंच होती है और लगभग ३५ दिन हिमपात भी होता है।यहाँ की राजधानी फाडूट्स (Vaduz) है, लिख्टेंश्टाइन की प्रमुख भाषा जर्मन है। यहाँईसाई धर्म प्रमुख है। राइन घाटी में मक्का एवं अन्य खाद्यान्न, आलू तथा बगीचों में उत्पन्न होनेवाली फसलें उगाई जाती हैं। अंगूर एव फलों का भी उत्पादन होता है। राज खनिजों से रहित है। उद्योगों में संगणक यंत्र, चश्मे के कांच, माइक्रोमीटर, सिलाई की मशीनों की सूइयाँ, बुनाई की मशीनें एवं कपड़े का कुछ मात्रा में उत्पादन होता है।




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