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Luxembourg

Luxembourg

Geography: Luxembourg is about half the size of Delaware. The Ardennes Mountains extend from Belgium into the northern section of Luxembourg. The rolling plateau of the fertile Bon Pays is in the south.

Government :Constitutional monarchy.

History: Luxembourg, once part of Charlemagne's empire, became an independent state in 963, when Siegfried, count of Ardennes, became sovereign of Lucilinburhuc (“Little Fortress”). In 1060, Conrad, a descendant of Siegfried, took the title count of Luxembourg. From the 15th to the 18th century, Spain, France, and Austria held the duchy in turn. The Congress of Vienna in 1815 made it a grand duchy and gave it to William I, king of the Netherlands. In 1839, the Treaty of London ceded the western part of Luxembourg to Belgium. The eastern part, continuing in personal union with the Netherlands and a member of the German Confederation, became autonomous in 1848 and a neutral territory by decision of the London Conference of 1867, governed by its grand duke. Germany occupied the duchy in World Wars I and II. Allied troops liberated the enclave in 1944. Luxembourg joined NATO in 1949, the Benelux Economic Union (with Belgium and the Netherlands) in 1948, and the European Economic Community (later the EU) in 1957. In 1961, Prince Jean, son and heir of Grand Duchess Charlotte, was made head of state, acting for his mother. She abdicated in 1964, and Prince Jean became grand duke. Luxembourg's parliament approved the Maastricht Accord, paving the way for the economic unity of the EU in July 1992. Crown Prince Henri was sworn in as grand duke in Oct. 2000, replacing his father, Jean, who had been head of state for 26 years.

Capital: Luxembourg,National name: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Languages: Luxermbourgish (national) French, German (both administrative) Ethnicity/race: Luxembourger 63.1%, Portuguese 13.3%, French 4.5%, Italian 4.3%, German 2.3%, other EU 7.3%, other 5.2% (2000 census) Religions: Roman Catholic 87%; Protestant, Jewish, Islamic 13% (2000) National Holiday: National Day, June 23 Literacy rate: 100% (2003 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $42.67 billion; per capita $77,900. Real growth rate: 0.5%. Inflation: 1.8%. Unemployment: 4.9%. Arable land: 23.9%. Agriculture: wine, grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy products, livestock products. Labor force: 208,800 note: data exclude foreign workers; in addition to the figure for domestic labor force, about 150,000 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2013 est.) Industries: banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism. Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land. Exports: $15.8 billion (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass. Imports: $23.12 billion (2013 est.): minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods. Major trading partners: Germany, France, Belgium, UK, Italy, Netherlands, China, U.S., Switzerland (2013). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 266,700 (2012); mobile cellular: 761,300 (2012). Broadcast media: Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services to pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately-owned broadcast media group, the RTL group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available (2008). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 250,900 (2012). Internet users: 424,500 (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 275 km (2008). Roadways: total: 2,899 km; paved: 2,899 km (including 152 km of expressways) (2008). Waterways: 37 km; Moselle. Ports and terminals: Mertert. Airports: 2 (2013). International disputes: none.

लक्सेम्बर्ग (लक्सेम्बर्गी : Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg, फ़्राँसिसी : Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, जर्मन : Großherzogtum Luxemburgयूरोप महाद्वीप में स्थित एक देश है। इसकी राजधानी है लक्सेम्बर्ग शहर। इसकी मुख्य- और राजभाषाएँ हैं जर्मन भाषाफ़्राँसिसी भाषा और लक्सेम्बर्गी भाषा। इसके शासक एक राजा-समान ग्रैंड ड्यूक हैं। लक्जमबर्ग पश्चिम यूरोप का एक छोटा सा देश है। यह बेल्जियमफ्रांस और जर्मनी से घिरा हुआ है। लक्जमबर्ग का क्षेत्रफल 2586 वर्ग किलोमीटर है, जबकि जनसंख्या पांच लाख के करीब है।

लक्जमबर्ग में संसदीय लोकतांत्रिक व्यवस्था है, जबकि संवैधानिक रूप से राजा सर्वोच्च होता है। लक्जमबर्ग एक विकसित देश है, जहां प्रतिव्यक्ति सकल घरेलू उत्पाद यानी जीडीपी सबसे ज्यादा है। लक्जमबर्ग यूरोपीय संघनाटोसंयुक्त राष्ट्र संघयूरोपीय संघ और ओईसीडी का संस्थापक सदस्य है, जो देश में आर्थिक, राजनीतिक और सैन्य एकीकरण पर सर्वसम्मति को दर्शाता है। सांस्कृति रूप से लक्जमबर्ग ने रोमन यूरोप और जर्मन यूरोप की सांस्कृतिक विशेषताओं को अपनाया है। यहां जर्मन, फ्रेंच और लक्जमबर्गीस भाषाएं बोली जाती है और ये तीनों ही इसकी आधिकारिक भाषा है। धर्मनिरपेक्ष होने के बावजूद, लक्जमबर्ग रोमन कैथोलिक का प्रभाववाला देश है।

 

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