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Geography: Madagascar lies in the Indian Ocean off the southeast coast of Africa opposite Mozambique. The world's fourth-largest island, it is twice the size of Arizona. The country's low-lying coastal area gives way to a central plateau. The once densely wooded interior has largely been cut down.

Government: Multiparty republic.

History :The Malagasy are of mixed Malayo-Indonesian and African-Arab ancestry. Indonesians are believed to have migrated to the island about 700. King Andrianampoinimerina (1787–1810) ruled the major kingdom on the island, and his son, Radama I (1810–1828), unified much of the island. The French made the island a protectorate in 1885, and then, in 1894–1895, ended the monarchy, exiling Queen Rànavàlona III to Algiers. A colonial administration was set up, to which the Comoro Islands were attached in 1908, and other territories later. In World War II, the British occupied Madagascar, which retained ties to Vichy France.

Capital: Antananarivo, National name: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara Languages: Malagasy and French (both official), English Ethnicity/race: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Côtiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry: Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Islam 7% National Holiday: Independence Day, June 26 Literacy rate: 64.5% (2009 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $22.03 billion; per capita $1,000. Real growth rate: 2.6%. Inflation:8.8%. Unemployment: N.A. Arable land: 5.96%. Agriculture: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products. Labor force: 9.504 million (2007). Industries:meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism. Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower. Exports: $644.4 million (2013 est.): coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products. Imports: $2.794 billion (2012 est.): capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food. Major trading partners: U.S., France, Germany, China, Kuwait, India, Bahrain, Mauritius, Singapore, Indonesia, South Africa, Canada (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 143,700 (2012); mobile cellular: 8.564 (2012). Broadcast media:state-owned Radio Nationale Malagasy (RNM) and Television Malagasy (TVM) have an extensive national network reach; privately-owned radio and TV broadcasters in cities and major towns; state-run radio dominates in rural areas; relays of 2 international broadcasters are available in Antananarivo (2007). Internet Service Providers (ISPs):38,392 (2012). Internet users: 319,900 (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 854 km (2008). Roadways: total: 34,476 km; paved: 5,613 km; unpaved: 2,886 km (2010 est.). Waterways: 600 km (432 km navigable) (2011). Ports and terminals: Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara (Tulear). Airports: 83 (2013). International disputes: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claims of the Comoros and France (Glorioso Islands, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands).


मेडागास्कर, या 'मेडागास्कर गणराज्य' (पुराना नाम : मालागासी गणराज्य, फ्रांसीसी: République malgache) हिन्द महासागर में अफ्रीका के पूर्वी तट पर स्थित एक द्वीपीय देश है। मुख्य द्वीप, जिसे मेडागास्कर कहा जाता है विश्व का चौथा सबसे बड़ा द्वीप है। यहाँ विश्व की पाँच प्रतिशत पादप और जीव प्रजातियाँ मौजूद हैं। इनमें से ८० प्रतिशत केवल मेडागास्कर में ही पाई जाती हैं। इस देश की दो तिहाई जनसंख्या अंतरराष्ट्रीय गरीबी रेखा (१.२५ अमेरिकी डॉलर प्रतिदिन) से नीचे निवास करती है।






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