Government: Military rule. The legal system is based on Islam.
History: Mauritania was first inhabited by blacks and Berbers, and it was a center for the Berber Almoravid movement in the 11th century, which sought to spread Islam through western Africa. It was first explored by the Portuguese in the 15th century, but by the 19th century the French had gained control. France organized the area into a territory in 1904, and in 1920 it became one of the colonies that constituted French West Africa. In 1946, it was named a French overseas territory.
National name: Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah Languages: Arabic (official and national), Pulaar, Soninke, Wolof (all national languages), French, Hassaniya (a variety of Arabic) Ethnicity/race: black Moors (Haratines - Arab-speaking slaves, former slaves, and their descendants of African origin, enslaved by white Moors) 40%, white Moors (of Arab-Berber descent, known as Bidhan) 30%, black Africans (non-Arabic speaking, Halpulaar, Soninke, Wolof, and Bamara ethnic groups) 30% Religion: Islam 100% National Holiday: Independence Day, Nov. 28 Literacy rate: 58.6% (2011 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $8.2046 billion; per capita $2,200. Real growth rate: 6.4%. Inflation:4.6%. Unemployment: 30% (2008 est.). Arable land: 0.44%. Agriculture: dates, millet, sorghum, rice, corn; cattle, sheep. Labor force: 1.318 million (2007); agriculture 50%, services 48%, industry 2% (2001 est.). Industries: fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum. Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, copper, phosphate, diamonds, gold, oil, fish. Exports: $2.728 billion (2013 est.): iron ore, fish and fish products, gold. Imports: $3.335 billion (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, petroleum products, capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods. Major trading partners: Japan, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Belgium, Côte d'Ivoire, China, U.S., Brazil (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 65,100 (2012); mobile cellular: 4.024 (2012). Broadcast media: one state-run TV (Television de Mauritanie) and one state-run radio network (Radio de Mauritanie); Television de Mauritanie has three channels, Al Mahadra station (for Islamic content) and Channels 1 and 2, which cover news, sports, and other programming; Radio de Mauritanie runs 12 regional stations as well as a radio station for youth and the Holy Quran station; five private TV channels and five private radio stations also broadcast from Mauritania; six private international radio stations broadcast in Mauritania on the FM band; with satellite connections, Mauritanians also have access to hundreds of foreign TV channels (2013). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 22 (2012). Internet users: 75,000 (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 728 km (2008). Highways: total: 10,628 km; paved: 3,158 km; unpaved: 7,470 km (2010). Waterways: some navigation possible on the Senegal River. Ports and terminals: Nouadhibou, Nouakchott.Airports: 30 (2013). International disputes: Mauritanian claims to Western Sahara have been dormant in recent years.
मॉरिटानिया (अरबी: موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā), आधिकारिक रूप से इस्लामी गणराज्य मॉरिटानिया, उत्तर पश्चिम अफ्रीका में एक देश है। इसके पडोसी राष्ट्रों में सेनेगल, माली, अल्जीरिया और मोरोक्को शामिल हैं। इसका नाम बर्बर राष्ट्र मौरेटनिया पर आधारित है। मॉरिटानिया की राजधानी नौआकशॉट है, जो की अंध महासागर के तट पर स्थित है।
मॉरिटानिया की असैनिक सरकार को ६ अगस्त २००८ में सैनिक तख्तापलट में पराभूत किया या था।