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Geography: Mexico is bordered by the United States to the north and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. Mexico is about one-fifth the size of the United States. Baja California in the west is an 800-mile (1,287-km) peninsula that forms the Gulf of California. In the east are the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Campeche, which is formed by Mexico's other peninsula, the Yucatán. The center of Mexico is a great, high plateau, open to the north, with mountain chains on the east and west and with ocean-front lowlands beyond.

Government: Federal republic.

History: At least three great civilizations—the Mayas, the Olmecs, and the Toltecs—preceded the wealthy Aztec empire, conquered in 1519–1521 by the Spanish under Hernando Cortés. Spain ruled Mexico as part of the viceroyalty of New Spain for the next 300 years until Sept. 16, 1810, when the Mexicans first revolted. They won independence in 1821. From 1821 to 1877, there were two emperors, several dictators, and enough presidents and provisional executives to make a new government on the average of every nine months. Mexico lost Texas (1836), and after defeat in the war with the U.S. (1846–1848), it lost the area that is now California, Nevada, and Utah, most of Arizona and New Mexico, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In 1855, the Indian patriot Benito Juárez began a series of reforms, including the disestablishment of the Catholic Church, which owned vast property. The subsequent civil war was interrupted by the French invasion of Mexico (1861) and the crowning of Maximilian of Austria as emperor (1864). He was overthrown and executed by forces under Juárez, who again became president in 1867.

Capital: Mexico City,Official name: Estados Unidos Mexicanos Languages: Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8% note: indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005) Ethnicity/race: mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1% Religions: Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.) National Holiday: Independence Day, September 16 Literacy rate: 93.5% (2011 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $1.2 trillion; per capita $15,600. Real growth rate: 1.25%. Inflation:4%. Unemployment: 4.9% plus underemployment of perhaps 25%. Arable land: 12.98%. Agriculture: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products. Labor force:51.48 million; agriculture 13.4%, industry 24.1%, services 61.9% (2011). Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism. Natural resources: petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber. Exports: $370.9 billion (2013 est.): manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton. Imports: $370.7 billion (2013 est.): metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts. Major trading partners: U.S., China, Japan (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 20.22 million (2012); mobile cellular: 100.786 million (2012). Broadcast media: many TV stations and more than 1,400 radio stations with most privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available (2012). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16.233 million (2012). Internet users: 31.02 million (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 17,665 km (2008). Highways: total: 377,660 km; paved: 137,544 km (including 7,176 km of expressways); unpaved: 240,116 km (2004). Waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals. major seaports: Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Salina Cruz, Veracruz. Airports: 1,714 (2013). International disputes: abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty.

राजधानी: मेक्सिको शहर,

संयुक्त राज्य मेक्सिको, सामान्यतः मेक्सिको के रूप में जाना जाता एक देश है जो की उत्तर अमेरिका में स्थित है। यह एक संघीय संवैधानिक गणतंत्र है। यह संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका के उत्तर पर सीमा से लगा हुआ हैं। दक्षिण प्रशांत महासागर इसके पश्चिम में, ग्वाटेमाला, बेलीज और कैरेबियन सागर इसके दक्षिण में और मेक्सिको की खाड़ी इसके पूर्व की ओर हैं। मेक्सिको लगभग 2 मिलियन वर्ग किलोमीटर में फैला हुआ हैं, मेक्सिको अमेरिका में पांचवा और दुनिया में 14 वा सबसे बड़ा स्वतंत्र राष्ट्र है। 11 करोड़ की अनुमानित जनसंख्या के साथ, यह 11 वीं सबसे अधिक आबादी वाला देश है। मेक्सिको एक इकतीस राज्यों और एक संघीय जिला, राजधानी शामिल फेडरेशन है।



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