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Mozambique

Mozambique

Geography: Mozambique stretches for 1,535 mi (2,470 km) along Africa's southeast coast. It is nearly twice the size of California. Tanzania is to the north; Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe to the west; and South Africa and Swaziland to the south. The country is generally a low-lying plateau broken up by 25 sizable rivers that flow into the Indian Ocean. The largest is the Zambezi, which provides access to central Africa.

Government: Multiparty republic. History Bantu speakers migrated to Mozambique in the first millennium, and Arab and Swahili traders settled the region thereafter. It was explored by Vasco da Gama in 1498 and first colonized by Portugal in 1505. By 1510, the Portuguese had control of all of the former Arab sultanates on the east African coast. Portuguese colonial rule was repressive.

Capital: Maputo,National name: República de Moçambique Languages: Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 4% (1997 census) Ethnicity/race: African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08% Religions: Catholic 28.4%, Protestant 27.7% (Zionist Christian 15.5%, Evangelical Pentecostal 10.9%, Anglican 1.3%), Muslim 17.9%, other 7.2%, none 18.7% (1997 census) National Holiday: Independence Day, June 25 Literacy rate: 56.1% (2010 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $28.15 billion; per capita $1,200. Real growth rate: 7%. Inflation:4.4%. Unemployment: 17% (1997 est.). Arable land: 6.51%. Agriculture: cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry. Labor force:10.55 million (2013 est.); agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13% (1997 est.). Industries: aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages. Natural resources: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite. Exports: $3.92 billion (2013 est.): aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity. Imports: $7.068 billion (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles. Major trading partners: Belgium, South Africa, Italy, Spain, China, India, U.S., Australia, Portugal (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 88,100 (2012); mobile cellular: 8.108 million (2012). Broadcast media: 1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately-owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007). Internet hosts: 89,737 (2012). Internet users: 613,600 (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 4,787 km (2008). Highways: total: 30,331 km; paved: 6,303 km; unpaved: 24,028 km (2008 est.). Waterways: 460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010). Ports and terminals: Beira, Maputo, Nacala. Airports: 98 (2013). International disputes: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration.

राजधानी: मापूतो,

मोज़ाम्बीक (अंग्रेजी: Mozambique, पुर्तगाली: Moçambique) दक्षिणपूर्वी अफ़्रीका में स्थित एक देश है जो पूर्व में हिन्द महासागर से, उत्तर में तंज़ानिया से, पश्चिमोत्तर में मालावी और ज़ाम्बिया से. पश्चिम मेंज़िम्बाब्वे से और दक्षिण में स्वाज़ीलैंड और दक्षिण अफ़्रीका से बंधा हुआ है। पहली से पांचवी सदी ईसवी में यहाँ उत्तर और पश्चिम से बांटू-भाषी लोग आ बसे, जिसके बाद स्वाहिली-भाषी और फिर अरब लोगोंका प्रभाव रहा। सन् १४९८ में पुर्तगाली खोजयात्री वास्को दा गामा जो अपनी नौकाएँ लेकर भारत जा रहा था रास्ते में यहाँ आ धमका। १५०५ में पुर्तगाल ने मोज़ाम्बीक पर अपना राज घोषित कर दिया और मोज़ाम्बीक उसका उपनिवेश (कोलोनी) बन गया। पुर्तगाली ज़माने में बहुत से भारतीय मूल के लोग भी मोज़ाम्बीक जा बसे और वे २००७ में आबादी का ०.०८% थे। १९७५ में मोज़ाम्बीक आज़ाद हुआ। १९७७ से १९९२ में यहाँ एक ज़बरदस्त गृह युद्ध चला।

 

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