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Oman

Oman

Geography: Oman is a 1,000-mile-long (1,700 km) coastal plain at the southeast tip of the Arabian Peninsula lying on the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. The country is the size of Kansas.

Government: Absolute monarchy.

History: Arabs migrated to Oman from the 9th century BC onward, and conversion to Islam occurred in the 7th century AD Muscat, the capital of the geographical area known as Oman, was occupied by the Portuguese from 1508 to 1648. Then it fell to Ottoman Turks, but in 1741, Ahmad ibn Sa'id forced them out, and the descendants of Sultan Ahmad rule Oman today. Ahmad expanded his empire to East Africa, and for a time the Omani capital was in Zanzibar. After 1861, however, Zanzibar fell from Omani control. The sultans and imams of Oman clashed continuously throughout the 20th century until 1959, when the last Ibadi imam was evicted from the country. In a palace coup on July 23, 1970, the sultan, Sa'id bin Taimur, who had ruled since 1932, was overthrown by his son, Qabus ibn Sa'id, who promised to establish a modern government and use newfound oil wealth to aid the people of this very isolated state. Oman joined the Arab League and the United Nations in 1971. A long border dispute with Yemen was resolved in Oct. 1992; in 1997, the countries agreed to new maps defining the border. In 1997, Sultan Qabus granted women the right to be elected to the country's consultative body, the Shura Council (Majlis al-Shura). In 2003, the sultan extended voting rights to everyone over 21; previously, voters were selected from among the elite, and only about a quarter of the population was allowed to vote.

Capital: Muscat,National name: Saltanat Uman Languages: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects Ethnicity/race: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African Religions: Muslim (official; majority are Ibadhi, lesser numbers of Sunni and Shia) 85.9%, Christian 6.5%, Hindu 5.5%, Buddhist 0.8%, Jewish note: approximately 75% of Omani citizens, who compose almost 70% of the country's total population, are Ibadhi Muslims; the Omani government does not keep statistics on religious affiliation (2013) National Holiday: Birthday of Sultan Qaboos, November 18 Literacy rate: 86.9% (2010 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $94.86 billion; per capita $29,800. Real growth rate: 5.1%. Inflation: 1.6%. Unemployment: 15% (2004 est.). Arable land: 0.1%. Agriculture: dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish. Labor force: 968,800 (2007 est.); agriculture n.a., industry n.a., services n.a. Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas (LNG) production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber. Natural resources: petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas. Exports: $56.22 billion (2013 est.): petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles. Imports: $30.75 billion (2013 est.): machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants. Major trading partners: China, South Korea, Japan, Thailand, UAE, U.S., Singapore, India (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 305,000 (2012); mobile cellular: 5.278 million (2012). Broadcast media: 1 state-run TV broadcaster; TV stations transmitting from Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Yemen available via satellite TV; state-run radio operates multiple stations; first private radio station began operating in 2007 and 2 additional stations now operating (2007). Internet hosts: 14,531 (2012). Internet users: 1.465 million (2009). Transportation: Railways: 0 km. Highways: total: 60,240 km; paved: 29,685 km (including 1,943 km of expressways); unpaved: 30,545 km (2012). Ports and harbors: Mina' Qabus, Salalah, Suhar. Airports: 132 (2013). International disputes: boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclave, but details of the alignment have not been made public.

राजधानी: मस्कट,

ओमान (अरबी: عمان) अरबी प्रायद्वीप के पूर्व-दक्षिण में स्थित एक देश है जिसे आधिकारिक रूप से सल्तनत उमान नाम से जानते हैं। यह सउदी अरब के पूर्व और दक्षिण की दिशा में अरब सागर की सीमा से लगा है। संयुक्त अरब अमीरात इसके उत्तर में स्थित है।ओमान की कुल जनसंख्या 25 लाख के आसपास है और यहाँ बाहर से आकर रहने वालों (आप्रवासियों) की संख्या काफ़ी है। लगभग पूरी जनसंख्या मुस्लिम है जिसमें इबादियों की संख्या सबसे अधिक है। इसके अमेरिका और ब्रिटेन के साथ गहरे कूटनीतिक संबंध हैं।

इतिहास

सुमेरी सभ्यता के एक लेख के अनुसार इसे मगन नाम से जाना जाता था। ओमान नाम एर अरबी जाति पर पड़ा जो यमन के उमान क्षेत्र से आए थे। ईसापूर्व छठी सदी से लेकर सातवीं सदी के मध्य तक यहाँ ईरान (फ़ारस) के तीन वंशों का शासन रहा - हख़ामनीपार्थियन और सासानी। सातवीं सदी में मुहम्मद साहब के जीवनकाल में ही ओमान में इस्लाम का आगमन हो गया था। सन् 1508-1648 तक यहाँ परपुर्तगालियों के उपनिवेश थे जो वास्को दा गामा द्वारा भारत की खोज किये जाने के बाद समुद्री रास्तों पर नियंत्रण के लिए बनाए गए थे। पुर्तगाल पर स्पेन के अधिकार हो जाने के बाद पुर्तगालियों को वापस जाना पड़ा। इसके बाद ओमानियों ने पूर्वी अफ़्रीकी तटीय प्रदेशों से भी पुर्तगालियों को मार भगाया।

 

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