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Geography: Rwanda, in east-central Africa, is surrounded by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Tanzania, and Burundi. It is slightly smaller than Maryland. Steep mountains and deep valleys cover most of the country. Lake Kivu in the northwest, at an altitude of 4,829 ft (1,472 m), is the highest lake in Africa. Extending north of it are the Virunga Mountains, which include the volcano Karisimbi (14,187 ft; 4,324 m), Rwanda's highest point.

Government: Republic.

History: The original inhabitants of Rwanda were the Twa, a Pygmy people who now make up only 1% of the population. While the Hutu and Tutsi are often considered to be two separate ethnic groups, scholars point out that they speak the same language, have a history of intermarriage, and share many cultural characteristics. Traditionally, the differences between the two groups were occupational rather than ethnic. Agricultural people were considered Hutu, while the cattle-owning elite were identified as Tutsi. Supposedly Tutsi were tall and thin, while Hutu were short and square, but it is often impossible to tell one from the other. The 1933 requirement by the Belgians that everyone carry an identity card indicating tribal ethnicity as Tutsi or Hutu enhanced the distinction. Since independence, repeated violence in both Rwanda and Burundi has increased ethnic differentiation between the groups. Rwanda, which became a part of German East Africa in 1890, was first visited by European explorers in 1854. During World War I, it was occupied in 1916 by Belgian troops. After the war, it became a Belgian League of Nations mandate, along with Burundi, under the name of Ruanda-Urundi. The mandate was made a UN trust territory in 1946. Until the Belgian Congo achieved independence in 1960, Rwanda-Urundi was administered as part of that colony. Belgium at first maintained Tutsi dominance but eventually encouraged power sharing between Hutu and Tutsi. Ethnic tensions led to civil war, forcing many Tutsi into exile. When Rwanda became the independent nation of Rwanda on July 1, 1962, it was under Hutu rule.

Capital: Kigali, National name: Repubulika y'u Rwanda Languages: Kinyarwanda, French, and English (all official); Kiswahili in commercial centers Ethnicity/race: Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1% Religions: Roman Catholic 49.5%, Protestant 39.4%, Islam 1.8%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 3.6%, other 0.6% (2002) Literacy rate: 71.1% (2010 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP: $16.37 billion (2013 est.); per capita $1,500. Real growth rate: 7.5%. Inflation:5.9%. Unemployment: n.a. Arable land: 46.32%. Agriculture: coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock. Labor force: 4.446 million (2007); agriculture 90%, industry and services 10% (2000). Industries: cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes. Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land. Exports: $538.3 million (2013 est.): coffee, tea, hides, tin ore.Imports: $1.937 billion (2013 est.): foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material. Major trading partners: Kenya, Democratic Republic of the Congo, China, Swaziland, US, Uganda, UAE, Tanzania, Malaysia, India, Belgium, Canada (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 44,400 (2012); mobile cellular: 5.69 million (2012). Broadcast media: government owns and operates the only TV station; government-owned and operated Radio Rwanda has a national reach; 9 private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007).Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1,447 (2012). Internet users:450,000 (2009). Transportation: Railways: 0 km. Highways: total: total: 4,700 km paved: 1,207 km unpaved: 3,493 km (2012).Waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft. Ports and harbors: Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye. Airports: 7 (2013). International disputes: Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Rwandan refugees still reside in 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi in 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place.

राजधानी: किगाली,

रुआण्डा (Rwanda) मध्य-पूर्व अफ़्रीका में स्थित एक देश है। इसका क्षेत्रफल लगभग २६ हज़ार वर्ग किमी है, जो भारत के केरल राज्य से भी छोटा है। यह अफ़्रीका महाद्वीप की मुख्यभूमि पर स्थित सबसे छोटे देशों में से एक है। रुआण्डा पृथ्वी की भूमध्य रेखा (इक्वेटर) से ज़रा दक्षिण में स्थित है और महान अफ़्रीकी झीलों के क्षेत्र का भाग है। इसके पश्चिम में पहाड़ियाँ और पूर्व में घासभूमि है।


हज़ारों वर्ष पूव पाषाण युग और लौह युग में रुआण्डा क्षेत्र में शिकारी-फ़रमर लोग बसे और वर्तमान रुआण्डा के त्वा लोग उन्ही के वंशज हैं। बाद में यहाँ बांटू जातियों का विस्तार हुआ। यह किस काल और किन कारणों से टुटसी और हूटू में बंट गई इसे लेकर इतिहासकारों में मतभेद है। मध्य १८वीं शताब्दी में रुआण्डा राजशाही स्थापित हुई जिसमें टुटसियों ने हूटूओं पर राज किया। सन् १८८४ में जर्मनी ने रुआण्डा को अपना उपनिवेश बना लिया लेकिन प्रथम विश्व युद्ध में बेल्जियम ने जर्मनों को यहाँ से खदेड़कर १९१४ में रुआण्डा पर अपना राज कर लिया। बांटो और राज करो की विचारधारा के अंतरगत उन्होने हूटू और टुटसिओं में आपसी नफ़रत बढ़ाने के लिये काम किया और टुटसी राजाओं को अपना मित्र बनाकर शासन किया। १९५९ में हूटू जनसमुदाय ने विद्रोह कर दिया और १९६२ में स्वतंत्रता प्राप्त करने में सफल हो गये। टुटसी इस हूटू-केन्द्रित राज्य से असंतुष्ट हुए और उन्होने आर-पी-एफ़ (RPF, Rwandan Patriotic Front, रुआण्डाई देशभक्त मोर्चा) नामक सेना में संगठित होकर १९९० में सरकार के विरुद्धगृह युद्ध आरम्भ किया। यह तनाव विस्फोटक रूप से १९९४ के रवांडा जनसंहार का कारण बना जिसमें हूटूओं ने ५ से १० लाख के बीच टुटसी और निरपेक्ष हूटू मारे। यह नरसंहार तब समाप्त हुआ जब आर-पी-एफ़ सेना ने विजय प्राप्त कर ली।




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