United Arab Emirates
Geography: The United Arab Emirates, in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, extends along part of the Gulf of Oman and the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. The nation is the size of Maine. Its neighbors are Saudi Arabia to the west and south, Qatar to the north, and Oman to the east. Most of the land is barren and sandy.
Government: Federation formed in 1971 by seven emirates known as the Trucial States—Abu Dhabi (the largest), Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qaiwain. In addition to a federal president and prime minister, each emirate has a separate ruler who oversees the local government.
History: Originally the area was inhabited by a seafaring people who were converted to Islam in the 7th century. Later, a dissident sect, the Carmathians, established a powerful sheikdom, and its army conquered Mecca. After the sheikdom disintegrated, its people became pirates. Threatening the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman early in the 19th century, the pirates provoked the intervention of the British, who in 1820 enforced a partial truce and in 1853 a permanent truce. Thus what had been called the Pirate Coast was renamed the Trucial Coast. The British provided the nine Trucial states with protection but did not formally administer them as a colony. The British withdrew from the Persian Gulf in 1971, and the Trucial states became a federation called the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two of the Trucial states, Bahrain and Oman, chose not to join the federation, reducing the number of states to seven. The country signed a military defense agreement with the U.S. in 1994 and one with France in 1995. After the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks on the U.S., the UAE was identified as a major financial center used by al-Qaeda in transferring money to the hijackers (two of the 9/11 hijackers were UAE citizens). The nation immediately cooperated with the U.S., freezing accounts tied to suspected terrorists and strongly clamping down on money laundering. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the founder of the UAE and ruler of the federation since 1971, died in Nov. 2004. His son succeeded him. In Jan. 2006, Sheik Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the prime minister of the UAE and the emir of Dubai, died. Crown Prince Sheikh Muhammad ibn Rashid al-Maktoum assumed both roles. The Burj Khalifa, in Dubai, was completed in January 2010 and became the world's tallest building at 2,716 feet (828 meters) and 160 stories. It contains the world's fastest elevators, 20.7 acres of glass, and is expected to use about 250,000 gallons of water per day.
Capital: Abu Dhabi,Languages: Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu Ethnicity/race: Emiri 19%, other Arab and Iranian 23%, South Asian 50%, other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians) 8% (1982) Religions: Muslim (Islam; official) 76%, Christian 9%, other (primarily Hindu and Buddhist, less than 5% of the population consists of Parsi, Baha'i, Druze, Sikh, Ahmadi, Ismaili, Dawoodi Bohra Muslim, and Jewish) 15%. Note: represents the total population; about 85% of the population consists of noncitizens (2005 est.) Literacy rate: 90% (2005 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP(2013 est.): $269.8 billion; per capita $29,900. Real growth rate:4%. Inflation: 1.3%.Unemployment: 2.4% (2001).Arable land: 0.61%. Agriculture:dates, vegetables, watermelons; poultry, eggs, dairy products; fish.Labor force: 4.588 million; note: 85% of the population in the 15–64 age group is nonnational (2013 est.); services 78%, industry 15%, agriculture 7% (2000 est.).Industries: petroleum and petrochemicals; fishing, aluminum, cement, fertilizers, commercial ship repair, construction materials, some boat building, handicrafts, textiles. Natural resources:petroleum, natural gas. Exports:$368.9 billion (2013 est.): crude oil 45%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates. Imports: $249.6 billion (2013 est.): machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food. Major trading partners:Japan, South Korea, India, Thailand, China, Germany, Iran, U.S., Singapore (2012). Communications: Telephones:main lines in use: 1.967 million (2012); mobile cellular: 13.775 million (2012). Radio broadcast stations: except for the many organizations now operating in Dubai's Media Free Zone, most TV and radio stations remain government-owned; widespread use of satellite dishes provides access to pan-Arab and other international broadcasts (2007). Radios:820,000 (1997). Television broadcast stations: 15 (1997).Televisions: 310,000 (1997).Internet Service Providers.
राजधानी: आबू धाबी,
संयुक्त अरब अमीरात मध्यपूर्व एशिया में स्थित एक देश है। सन् १८७३ से १९४७ तक यह ब्रिटिश भारत के अधीन रहा। उसके बाद इसका शासन लंदन के विदेश विभाग से संचालित होने लगा। १९७१ में फारस की खाड़ी के सात शेख राज्यों आबू धाबी, शारजाह, दुबई, उम्म अल कुवैन, अजमान, फुजइराह तथा रस अल खैमा को मिलाकर स्वतंत्र संयुक्त अरब अमीरात की स्थापना हुई। इसमें रस अल खैमा १९७२ में शामिल हुआ। 19वीं सदी में युनाइटेड किंगडम और अनेक अरब शेखों के बीच हुई संधि की वजह से 1971 से पहले संयुक्त अरब अमीरात को युद्धविराम संधि राज्य के नाम से जाना जाता था। इसके अलावा क्षेत्र के अमीरात की वजह से 18वीं शताब्दी से लेकर 20वीं शताब्दी के शुरुआत तक इसे पायरेट कोस्ट के नाम से भी जाना जाता था। 1971 के संविधान के आधार पर संयुक्त अरब अमीरात की राजनैतिक व्यवस्था आपस में जुड़े कई प्रबंधकीय निकायों से मिलकर बनी है। इस्लाम देश का राष्ट्रीय धर्म और अरबी राष्ट्रीय भाषा है। तेल भंडार के मामले में दुनिया का छठवां सबसे बड़ा देश संयुक्त अरब अमीरात की अर्थव्यवस्था मध्यपूर्व में सबसे विकसित है।