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Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

Geography: Zimbabwe, a landlocked country in south-central Africa, is slightly smaller than California. It is bordered by Botswana on the west, Zambia on the north, Mozambique on the east, and South Africa on the south.

History: The remains of early humans, dating back 500,000 years, have been discovered in present-day Zimbabwe. The land's earliest settlers, the Khoisan, date back to 200 B.C. After a period of Bantu domination, the Shona people ruled, followed by the Nguni and Zulu peoples. By the mid-19th century the descendants of the Nguni and Zulu, the Ndebele, had established a powerful warrior kingdom. The first British explorers, colonists, and missionaries arrived in the 1850s, and the massive influx of foreigners led to the establishment of the territory Rhodesia, named after Cecil Rhodes of the British South Africa Company. In 1923, European settlers voted to become the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia. After a brief federation with Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) and Nyasaland (now Malawi) in the post–World War II period, Southern Rhodesia (also known as Rhodesia) chose to remain a colony when its two partners voted for independence in 1963.

Capital:Harare,Republic of Zimbabwe Languages: English (official), Shona, Ndebele (Sindebele), numerous minor tribal dialects Ethnicity/race: African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%, other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white less than 1% Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1% Literacy rate: 83.6% (2011 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $7.496 billion; per capita $600 (2013 est.). Real growth rate: 3.2%.Inflation: 8.5% (2013 est.). Unemployment: 95%. Arable land: 10.49%. Agriculture: corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs. Labor force: 3.939 million (2013); agriculture 66%, services 24%, industry 10% (1996). Industries: mining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages.Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals. Exports: $3.144 billion (2013 est.): platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing.Imports: $4.571 billion (2013 est.): machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels, food products. Major trading partners: South Africa, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Italy Botswana (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 301,600 (2012); mobile cellular: 12.614 million (2012). Radio broadcast stations: Government owns all local radio and TV stations; foreign shortwave broadcasts and satellite TV are available to those who can afford antennas and receivers; in rural areas, access to TV broadcasts is extremely limited (2007). Radios: 1.14 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 16 (1997). Televisions: 370,000 (1997).Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 30,615 (2012). Internet users: 1.423 million (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 3,427 km (2008). Highways: total: 97,267 km ; paved: 18,481 km ; unpaved: 78,786 km (2002 est.). Waterways: Some navigation possible on Lake Kariba (2011). Ports and harbors: Binga, Kariba. Airports: 196 (2013). International disputes: Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration.

राजधानी: हरारे,

ज़िम्बाब्वे, आधिकारिक तौर पर ज़िम्बाब्वे गणराज्य (अंग्रेजी: Republic of Zimbabwe), जिसे पहले दक्षिण रोडेशिया, रोडेशिया, रोडेशिया गणराज्य और ज़िम्बाब्वे रोडेशिया के नाम से जाना जाता था, अफ्रीकी महाद्वीप के दक्षिणी भाग में ज़ाम्बेज़ी और लिम्पोपो नदियों के बीच स्थित एक स्थल-रुद्ध (लैंडलॉक) देश है। इसकी सीमायें दक्षिण में दक्षिण अफ्रीका, दक्षिण पश्चिम में बोत्सवाना पश्चिमोत्तर में ज़ाम्बिया और पूर्व में मोजाम्बिक से मिलती हैं। अंग्रेजीशोना (एक बांतु भाषा) और देबेल (यह भी एक बांतु भाषा) ज़िम्बाब्वे की तीन आधिकारिक भाषायें हैं।

ज़िम्बाब्वे की शुरुआत ब्रिटिश किरीट उपनिवेश के एक भाग रोडेशिया के रूप में हुई। राष्ट्रपति रॉबर्ट मुगाबे राष्ट्र प्रमुख और सशस्त्र बलों के सेनानायक हैं। मॉर्गन स्वानगिरई प्रधानमंत्री है। स्वतंत्रता प्राप्ति के बाद से मुगाबे देश की सत्ता पर काबिज हैं।

 

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