Zaire , officially the Republic of Zaire (French: République du Zaïre; French pronunciation: [za.iʁ]) was the name, between 1971 and 1997, of a state in Central Africa which was later renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo, after the end of the Mobutu Sese Seko era. The state's name derived from the name of the Congo River, sometimes called Zaire in Portuguese, adapted from the Kongo word nzere or nzadi ("river that swallows all rivers"). The state was a one-party state and dictatorship, run by Mobutu Sese Seko and his ruling Popular Movement of the Revolution party. It was established following Mobutu's seizure of power in a military coup in 1965, following five years of political upheaval following independence known as the Congo Crisis. Zaire had a strongly centralist constitution and foreign assets were nationalized. A wider campaign of Authenticité, ridding the country of the influences from the colonial era of the Belgian Congo, was also launched under Mobutu's direction. Weakened by the end of American support after the end of the Cold War, Mobutu was forced to declare a new republic in 1990 to cope with demands for change. By the time of its disestablishment, Mobutu's rule was characterized by widespread cronyism, corruption and economic mismanagement. The state collapsed in 1996, amid the destabilization of eastern Zaire in the aftermath of the Rwandan Civil War and growing ethnic violence. In 1997, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, at the head of the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo militia, led a popular rebellion against the central government. With rebel forces making gains in the east, Mobutu fled the country, leaving Kabila's forces in charge.