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Area ;44,212 sq. km Population;2,53,53,081 * Capital ;Chandigarh Principal Languages; Hindi History and Geography Haryana has a proud history going back to the Vedic Age. The State was the home of the legendary Bharata dynasty, which has given the name Bharat to India. Haryana finds mention in the great epic of Mahabharata. Kurukshetra, the place of the epic battle between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, is situated in Haryana. The State continued to play a leading part in the history of India till the advent of the Muslims and the rise of Delhi as the imperial capital of India. Thereafter, Haryana functioned as an adjunct to Delhi and practically remained anonymous till the First War of India's Independence in 1857. When the rebellion was crushed and the British administration was re-established, the Nawabs of Jhajjar and Bahadurgarh, Raja of Ballabgarh and Rao Tula Ram of Rewari of the Haryana region were deprived of their territories. Their territories were either merged with the British territories or handed over to the rulers of Patiala, Nabha and Jind. Haryana thus became a part of the Punjab province. With the reorganisation of Punjab on 1 November 1966, Haryana was made into a full-fledged State. The State is bound by Uttar Pradesh in the east, Punjab in the west, Himachal Pradesh in the north and Rajasthan in the south. The National Capital Territory of Delhi juts into Haryana. Agriculture Agriculture is the mainstay of more than 65 per cent population in Haryana with the second largest contribution to the food bowl of the country. Under the diversification of crops, more and more area is being brought under cash crops like sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds, vegetable and fruits. Sustainable agriculture is being promoted through the propagation of resource conserving technologies and organic farming. Dhaincha and Moong have also been encouraged to maintain soil fertility. Education Haryana is shaping into a modern Takshila. Making elementary education available at reachable distance to all children, and opening/bringing a large number of institutes of higher learning, offering global standard education. According to 2001 census, the literacy rate in Haryana is 67.91 per cent against the all India literacy rate of 65.38 per cent. Haryana's female literacy rate is 55.73 per cent and male literacy rate is 78.49 per cent. Health The healthcare has been mad both affordable and reachable by setting up a state-wide network of district and sub-divisional hospitals. These are being beefed up with staff and equipment and deficiencies in referral services are being removed. The state-wide network of health centres includes 52 hospitals, 94 community health centres, 441 primary health centres, 2,465 sub-centres, 15 district TB Centres, 639 Ayurvedic, Homeopathy and Unani Centres, 16 urban health posts, the Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research at Rohtak, and Medical Colleges at Agroha (Hisar) and Mullana (Ambala). Besides, as many as 516 Delivery Huts have been set up to provide delivery services in clean and hygiene environment. Major infrastructural improvements are being made to upgrade the existing health institutions to the Indian Public Health standards. Information Technology Releasing the importance of Information Technology in the globalized world, the State Government has formulated an IT Policy which provides several incentives for setting up Technology Parks, Cyber Cities, IT corridors and ITES industry in the State. Haryana has emerged as a preferred investment destination for IT industry as well. Out of the total 46 SEZs are formally approved for the state, 35 are in the IT sector. Of these, three IT SEZs are in an advanced stage of completion. In addition, the state has okayed 33 professionals for setting up IT/Cyber Parks. The software exports from Haryana now aggregated Rs.21,000 crore. Industry The investment and industry-friendly policies pursued by the state government have made Haryana the cynosure of all investing eyes, and put the state on threshold of industrial revolution. Small wonder then, that there are more than 1,354 large and medium and 80,000 small-scale units dotting the industrial landscape in the state. Haryana today is the largest producer of passenger cars, tractors, motorcycles, bicycles, refrigerators, scientific instrument, etc. Besides, it is the largest exporter of basmati rice. Panipat handlooms and carpets are known all over world besides its lip-ticking Panchranga Achaar. Irrigation The 1,429-strong network of canals constitutes the bedrock of the irrigation system in Haryana with 6.83 lakh tubewells and pumpsets playing no mean role. 1,92,980 hectare of land is under agriculture in the state. Starting with 20,000 tubewells in 1966, the state had 4.91 lakh tubewells in March, 2010. The major irrigation projects in the state are western Yamuna Canal System, Bhakra Canal System and Gurgaon Canal System. Giving practical shape to the lift irrigation system for the first time in India, Haryana has raised water from lower levels to higher and drier slopes through JLN canal project. Haryana is a beneficiary of the multi-purpose project in Sutlej and Beas sharing benefits with Punjab and Rajasthan. Power The first state in the country to have achieved hundred per cent rural electrification way back in 1970, Haryana is well on way to becoming power surplus from a power deficit state. The total installed generation capacity available with Haryana is 5801.82 MW. Out of this, the Haryana Power Generation Corporation Limited has an installed generation capacity of 3230.5 MW, comprising 1367.8-MW Panipat Thermal Power Station, Panipat; 1200-MW Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Project, Hisar, 600 MW Deen Bandhu Chhotu Ram Thermal Power Project, Hisar; and 62.7-MW WYC Hydro Electric Station, Yamuna Nagar. The balance comes from Haryana's share in the central sector generating stations and from long-term power contracts. Transport Road and rail transport are the main carriers of passengers traffic in Haryana with aviation too playing a small role. Haryana is one state where all villages are linked with metalled roads. The length of the roads in the state is more than 35,303 km. Haryana Roadways number of buses is 3246. Then, railways play an important role in carrying both inter-state and intra-state passengers. Kalka, Ambala, Kurushetra, Panipat, Rohtak, Jind, Hisar and Jakhal are important railway stations. There is railway workshop at Jagadhari. Aviation too plays its role. There are civil aerodromes at Pinjore, Karnal, Hisar, Bhiwani and Narnaul. Tourist Centres A pioneer in highway tourism, Haryana has set up a vast network of 43 tourist complexes all over the state. Having 846-roomed accommodation in the various outfits, Haryana Tourism attracts 63 lakh tourists every year. The State Government has adopted a multi-pronged strategy to promote tourism. Tourist complexes have been set at strategic points along the highways passing through the state and tourist complexes have been developed around Delhi with the intent of promoting leisure tourism and conference tourism. Besides, tourist facilities have been set up at the district headquarters, and in important towns, to cater to the needs of tourists and local people. Some of the important tourist complexes are: Surajkund and Damdama in Gurgaon and fascinating pocket of pines at Morni Hills are other attractions of tourist interest. The other important resorts are Ethnic India Rai, Blue Jay (Samalkha), Skylark (Panipat), Karna Lake and Oasis (Uchana), Parakeet (Pipli), Kingfisher (Ambala), Magpie (Faridabad), Dabchick (Hodal), Shama (Gurgaon), Jungle Babbler (Dharuhera), Gauriyya (Bahadurgarh). Myna (Rohtak), Blue Bird (Hisar), Red Bishop (Panchkula) and Pinjore Gardens, (Pinjore). The famous Surajkund Crafts Mela is held every year in the month of February to promote the art and culture. Similarly, the Pinjore Heritage Festival is celebrated every year to promote the ancient heritage of Pinjore. क्षेत्रफल ;44,212 वर्ग किलोमिटर जनसंख्‍या ;2,53,53,081 * राजधानी; चंडीगढ़ मुख्‍य भाषा ;हिंदी इतिहास और भूगोल हरियाणा का इतिहास बड़ा गौरवपूर्ण है और यह वैदिक काल से आरंभ होता है। यह राज्‍य पौराणिक भरत वंश की जन्‍मभूमि माना जाता है जिसके नाम पर इस देश का नाम भारत पड़ा। हमारे महान महाकाव्‍य महाभारत में हरियाणा की चर्चा हुई है। भारत की राजधानी बनने से पहले तक भारत के इतिहास में मुसलमानों के आगमन और दिल्‍ली के भारत की राजधानी का एक हिस्‍सा बन गया और 1857 में स्‍वतंत्रता के प्रथम महासंग्राम से पूर्व तक यह गुमनाम बना रहा। सन् 1857 के विद्रोह को कुचलने के बाद जब ब्रिटिश प्रशासन फिर से स्‍थापित हुआ तो झज्‍झर और बहादुरगढ़ के नवाबों, बल्‍लभगढ़ के राजा तथा रिवाड़ी के राव तुलाराम की सत्‍ता छीन ली गई। उनके क्षेत्र या तो ब्रिटिश क्षेत्रों में मिला लिए गए या पटियाला, नाभा और जींद के शासकों को सौंप दिए गए। इस तरह हरियाणा पंजाब प्रांत का हिस्‍सा बन गया। एक नवंबर, 1966 को पंजाब के पुनर्गठन के बाद हरियाणा पूर्ण बन गया। हरियाणा के पूर्व में उत्तर प्रदेश, पश्चिम में पंजाब, उत्तर में हिमाचल प्रदेश और दक्षिण में राजस्‍थान है। राष्‍ट्रीय राजधानी क्षेत्र दिल्‍ली हरियाणा से जुड़ा है। राष्‍ट्रीय राजधानी क्षेत्र दिल्‍ली के दायरे में हरियाणा भी है। सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी दुनिया भर में चल रही वैश्‍वीकरण की प्रक्रिया में सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी के महत्‍व को देखते हुए हरियाणा सरकार ने सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी की नई व्‍यापक नीति तैयार की है ताकि राज्‍य नई सदी में विकास की ओर अग्रसर हो। इसके अंतर्गत सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी, आई.टी. ई.एस./बी.पी.ओ. उद्योग को प्रोत्‍साहन देने का प्रावधान है। सरकार ने हाल ही में टेक्‍नोलॉजी पार्को के लिए भी एक नीति घोषित की है। इस नीति का उदृदेश्‍य सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी को नैनो प्रौद्योगिकी, जैव प्रौद्योगिकी, मोबाइल कंप्‍यूटिंग और रोबोटिक्‍स से जोड़ना है। राज्‍य सरकार टेक्‍नोलॉजी पार्क, साइबर सिटी तथा आईटी कॉरीडोर की स्‍थापना के लिए लाइसेंस जारी कर रही है। उद्योग हरियाणा का औद्योगिकी आधार विशाल है । हरियाणा में हर चीज का उत्‍पादन होता है। हरियाणा कारों, ट्रैक्‍टरों, मोटरसाइकिलों, साइकिलों, रेफ्रिजरेटरों, वैज्ञानिक उपकरणों आदि का सबसे बड़ा उत्पादक है। हरियाणा विश्‍व बाजार में बासमती चावल का सबसे बड़ा निर्यातक है। पचरंगा अचार के अलावा पानीपत की हथकरघे की बनी वस्‍तुएं और कालीन विश्‍व भर में प्रसिद्ध हैं। सिंचाई सरकार ने घग्घर और इसकी सहायक नदियों पर चार कम ऊंचाई के बांध - कौशल्या बांध , दंग्राना बांध, दीवानवाला बांध और छामला बांध - परियोजनाओं को स्वीकृति प्रदान की है| बिजली हरियाणा देश का ऐसा पहला राज्‍य है जहां 1970 में सभी गांवों में बिजली दी गई थी। परिवहन सड़कें: सड़कें हरियाणा में सभी गांव पक्‍की सड़कों से जुड़े हैं। राज्‍य में सड़कों की कुल लंबाई 35,303 किलोमीटर है। रेलवे: कालका, अंबाला, कुरूक्षेत्र, रोहतक, जींद, हिसार, अंबाला, पानीपत और जखाल यहां के प्रमुख रेलवे स्‍टेशनों में से है। जगाधारी शहर में रेलवे की एक वर्कशॉप है। उड्डयन: हरियाणा में असैनिक हवाई अड्डे-हिसार, करनाल, पिंजौर, नारनौल और भिवानी में हैं। पर्यटन स्‍थल पर्यटन स्‍थल हरियाणा में 44 पर्यटक परिसर हैं। प्रमुख पर्यटन केंद्रों मं ब्‍लू जे (समालखा), स्‍काईलार्क (पानीपत), चक्रवर्ती झील और ओएसिस (उचाना), पराकीट (पीप्ली), किंगफिशर (अंबाला), मैगपाई (फरीदाबाद), दबचिक (होडल), जंगल बबलर (धारूहेड़ा), रेड विशप (पंचकुला) और बड़खल झील, सुल्‍तानपुर पक्षी विहार (सुल्‍तानुपर, गुड़गांव), दमदमा (गुड़गांव) और चीड़ वन के लिए प्रसिद्ध मोरनी हिल्‍स पर्यटकों के रूचि के कुछ अन्‍य केंद्र है। सूरजकुंड का विश्‍वप्रसिद्ध शिल्‍प मेला हर वर्ष फरवरी में आयोजित किया जाता है। इसी तर‍ह पिंजौर की प्राचीन विरासत को बढ़ावा देने के लिए पिंजौर विरासत उत्‍सव प्रतिवर्ष बनाया जाता है। source by national portal              



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