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Telangana

Telangana

Area-114,840 sq. Kms. Districts-31 Population-351.94 lakhs Capital-Hyderabad Top of Form Telangana, as a geographical and political entity was born on June 2, 2014 as the 29th and the youngest state inUnion of India. However, as an economic, social, cultural and historical entity it has a glorious history of at least two thousand five hundred years or more. Megalithic stone structures like cairns, cists, dolmens and menhirs found in several districts of Telangana show that there were human habitations in this part of the country thousands of years ago. Remnants of iron ore smelting found at many places demonstrate the hoary roots of artisanship and tool making in Telangana for at least two thousand years. The reference to Asmaka Janapada, part of present Telangana, as one of the 16 Janapadas in ancient India proves that there existed an advanced stage of society. One of the first five disciples of the Buddha, Kondanna is a typical name from Telangana and though there is no exact information about his native place, the earliest known Buddhist township of Kondapur in Medak district is believed to be after him. The Buddha himself famously acknowledged that it was Kondanna who understood him properly. The Buddhist sources say that Bavari, a Brahmin from Badanakurti in Karimnagar sent his disciples to all the way to north India to learn Buddhism and spread the message in this region. Megasthenes, who visited India in the 4th century BCE, wrote that there were 30 fortified towns of Andhras and a majority of them were in Telangana. In the historical age, Telangana had given rise to mighty empires and kingdoms like the Satavahanas, Vakatakas, Ikshvakus, Vishnukundins, Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Qutb Shahis and Asif Jahis. The emergence and flourishing of these powerful political formations is in itself a proof of existence of a sturdy economic, social and cultural structure. Thus Telangana has been a vibrant social entity by the time of the Buddha and continued to be so for the next two and a half millennia. Endowed with such rich cultural heritage, despite the attempts by historians and scholars from Andhra region to obfuscate and erase its history, Telangana always retained and fought for its self respect and self rule. Due to the official efforts to ignore, erase, belittle and look down Telangana history and turn it into an appendage or a footnote, particularly during 1956-2014, much of Telangana history is either not properly researched or not recorded even if it was studied. Telangana rose again and secured its political identity now and is in the process of resurrecting its own glorious past. Here is an attempt to reconstruct the history of Telangana, the wonderful musical instrument with a thousand strings. Top of Form Culture 'South of North and North of South,’ Telangana State has long been a meeting place for diverse languages and cultures. It is easily the best example for India’s composite culture, pluralism and inclusiveness. Located on the uplands of Deccan plateau, Telangana is the link between the North and South of India. It is thus no surprise that the region on the whole came to be known for its Ganga-Jamuna Tehzeeb and the capital Hyderabad as a ‘miniature India!’.    Geography, Polity and Economy of the region determined the culture of Telangana. Satavahanas, the earliest known rulers of the region sowed the seeds of independent and self-sufficient village economy, the relics of which can be felt even today. In the medieval times, the Kakatiya dynasty's rule, between the 11th and 14th centuries with Warangal as their capital, and subsequently the Qutub Shahis and Asafjahis, who ruled the Hyderabad state defined the culture of the region.    Art forms  Some classical art forms received the royal patronage and attained finesse. However, the art forms of the innumerable communities spread across the length and breadth of the State give Telangana its distinct identity. While the Kakatiya rule led to evolution of dance forms such as Perini Sivatandavam,  also known as ‘dance of warriors’, the commoners, faced with the challenges of daily life developed traditions of story-telling coupled with solutions to tide over them through Golla Suddulu, Oggu Kathalu and Gotralu etc.   Several art forms like above mingled and new forms emerged. The ubiquitous ‘Dhoom Dham’ is one such evolved and composite art form.  They generally were about the struggle and exploitation. People adopted the old sensibilities of theatre and art changing the content as per the case and place.   A variant of Yakshagana, Chindu Bhagavatham is performed widely across Telangana. It is a theater art form that combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style and form. The word ‘Chindu’ in Telugu means ‘jump’. As their presentation is interspersed with leaps and jumps, it gained the name of Chindu Bhagavatam. Most of the stories narrated are from ‘Bhagavatam’. Qawali, Ghazals and Mushairas evolved under the patronage of Qutub Shahi and the Asafjahi rulers in and around the capital city of Hyderabad.    Festivals Top of Form The Hindu festivals like Ugadi, Srirama Navami, Bonalu, Vinayaka Chaturthi, Dasara, Deepavali, Sankranti, Holi, Mahashivaratri are celebrated with pomp, gaiety and devotion. Dasara is the main festival with the epithet ‘pedda panduga.’   Bathukamma, a part of Dasara festivities, is unique to Telangana. This colourful festival has historic, ecological, societal and religious significance. Women clad in glittering costumes and jewellery carry beautifully stacked Bathukammas with flowers like Tangedu, Gunugu, Chamanti and others to the village or street’s meeting point.   Making circles around the assembled Bathukammas, womenfolk recite songs in a group. The songs have their roots in Puranas, History and even in the recent political and social developments of the particular region. The fete culminates in Saddula Bathukamma where the villagers immerse the flower stacks in the nearby tanks and lakes.    Bonalu is a Hindu Festival, celebrated during the Telugu month of Ashadam (translates to June/ July of Gregorian calendar) wherein Goddess Mahakali is worshiped. The festival is also considered a thanksgiving to the Goddess for fulfilling the desires of devotees.    As part of the festival, Bojanam or Meal is offered to the presiding Mother Goddess. Women prepare rice cooked with Milk, Jaggery in a Brass or Earthen Pot adorned with Neem Leaves, Turmeric, Vermilion putting a Lighted Diya on top of the Ghatam.   An important part of the festival is Rangam (prophecy). Women standing atop of an earthen pot ‘invokes’ goddess Mahankali onto her and turns an Oracle.   Next is Ghattam. A copper pot is decorated in the form of Mother Goddess. The Ghattam is carried by a priest and is taken in procession accompanied by ‘Pothurajus’ and musical instruments like trumpets and drums for the immersion. Pothurajus are considered the brother of Mother Goddess and are represented by well-built, bare-bodied men, wearing a small tightly draped red dhoti and bells on ankles with turmeric on bodies and vermilion on the foreheads.    While Ramzan is the main festival of Muslims, Moharram too is celebrated on a large scale in Telangana. It is known famously as ‘peerla panduga.’ Pir means Master. Many Hindus take part in the festival.   Chirstians, mainly in and around Hyderabad celebrate Christmas and Good Friday with great fervor and religiosity. Arts and Crafts Telangana is a great place for arts and crafts with many astounding handicrafts. Bidri Craft The unique art of silver engraved on metal. Black, gold and silver coatings are applied on this. It involves various several stages like casting, engraving, inlaying and oxidizing. The name of this art form is derived from a town called Bidar (currently part of Karnataka) of the erstwhile Hyderabad state. Banjara Needle Crafts Banjara Needle Crafts are the traditional handmade fabrics made by Banjaras (the tribal Gypsies) in Telangana. It is a form of embroidery and mirror work on fabrics employing the needlecraft. Dokra Metal Crafts Dhokra or Dokra is also known as bell metal craft and is widely seen in Jainoor Mandal, Ushegaon and Chittalbori in Adilabad district. The tribal craft produces objects like figurines, tribal gods, etc. The work consists of folk motifs, peacocks, elephants, horses, measuring bowl, lamp caskets and other simple art forms and traditional designs. Nirmal Arts The renowned Nirmal oil paintings use natural dyes for depicting themes from the epics such as Ramayana and Mahabharata. Also, the wood paintings and other wooden articles, has great aesthetic expression. The origin of the Nirmal craft is traced back to the Kakatiya era. The motifs used for Nirmal craft are floral designs and frescoes from the regions of Ajanta and Ellora and Mughal miniatures. Bronze Castings Telangana is famous world-wide for its amazing Bronze castings. While using solid casting of icons, the mould is created using several coatings of different clays on a finished wax model. This process then imparts fine curves to the cast image. Tourism Charminar, Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Chowmahalla Palace, Falaknuma Palace and Bhongir Fort, are some of the monuments in the state. Charminar, built in 1591 CE, is a monument and mosque located in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. The landmark has become a global icon of Hyderabad, listed among the most recognized structures of India. The Charminar is on the east bank of Musi river. To the northeast lies the Laad Bazaar and in the west end lies the granite-made richly ornamented Makkah Masjid. The English name is a transliteration and combination of the Urdu words Chār and Minar, translating to "Four Towers"; the eponymous towers are ornate minarets attached and supported by four grand arches. Golconda Fort – Once abandoned by Qutub Shahis, Golconda Fort is one of the most magnificent fortress complexes in India. Seated on a hill on one side and spiraling fort on the other, its location and internal design made it one of the strongest forts in India. Qutb Shahi Tombs – Home to various Tombs dedicated to Rulers of Qutub Shahi dynasty, located at Shaikpet, near Golconda Fort. These are an example of Deccan architecture with large minarets, huge domes, delicate marble designs and multiple inner passages. Kakatiya Kala Thoranam:It is a historical arch and symbol of the Kakatiya Dynasty in Warangal district.[6] The arch was built around 1200 CE during the rule of Kakatiya dynasty.It is a huge stone sculpture created as a Kirti Thoranam, meaning The Glory Arch.A depiction of the arch forms the main symbol in the Emblem of Telangana for the state of Telangana. Bhongir Fort:It is a Fort located in Bhongir, Nalgonda district, India.[10] It was built in the 10th century on an isolated monolithic rock by the Western Chalukya ruler Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI and was thus named after him as Tribhuvanagiri.At the foot of the fortified rocks 609.6 meters above the sea level stands the town of Bhongir, it has a unique egg-shaped construction with two entry points protected by huge rocks, so the fort was considered practically impregnable by invading armies. The fort is associated with the rule of queen Rudramadevi and her grandson Prataparudra II.[11] Paigah Tombs – These are recently discovered series of mausoleums with unique geometrical sculptures which were no where found in the world. These are located at Chandrayanagutta. Paigahs were noblemen under the reign of Nizams.Paigah Mosque Spanish Mosque, Begumpet : This Mosque is one of the marvelous mosques present in Secunderabad/Hyderabad. It's well known among the people because of its amazing architecture. The architecture followed in this mosque is the Andalusi/Spanish Architecture. The mosque was constructed by Sir Vicar-ul-Umra a Paigah Nawab in 1906. Kulpakji or Kolanupaka Temple: Kulpakji is a 2,000 years old Jain Temple at the village of Kolanupaka in Nalgonda district. This temple is one of the oldest temple in South India and considered famous for state of the art architecture and sculptures. The image of Lord Rishabhanatha, carved of a green stone has been historically famous as "Manikyaswami" and The 130 centimetres (51 in) statue of Lord Mahaveer is made of a single piece of jade. It is said the Manikyasami image of Rishabhantha was originally worshipped by Mandodari, the wife of Ravana and it was brought here by the ruler Sankar of Kalyana The interior of the temple is made by red sand stone and white marble. Yadagirigutta: Lord Vishnu (whose reincarnation is Lord Narasimha). The main deity is Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy.Located in Nalgonda District. In Ancient days Sri Yada Maharshi son of Sri Rushyashrunga Maharshi with the Blessings of Anjaneya Swamy had performed great penance for Lord Narasimha Swamy. After securing blessing for his penance Lord Narasimha had come into existence in Five Avatharas called as Sri Jwala Narasimha, Sri Yogananda Narasimha, Sri Ugra Narasimha, Sri Gandaberunda Narasimha, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha. As such this is known as "Pancha Narasimha Kshetram" Thousand Pillar Temple is one of the oldest temples of South India that was built by the kakatiya. It is believed that the Thousand Pillar Temple was built by King Rudra Deva in 1163 AD. The Thousand Pillar Temple is a specimen of the Kakatiyan style of architecture of the 12th century. There are one thousand pillars in the building and the temple, but no pillar obstructs a person in any point of the temple to see the god in the other temple. Bhadrachalam Temple is a temple to Lord Rama in the town of Bhadrachalam in Khammam district. It is situated on the banks of the river Godavari. This is the place whereKancherla Gopanna (1620–1680) wrote his devotional songs dedicated to Lord Rama. Sri Rama Navami, a celebration of the Marriage of Lord Rama and Sita, is celebrated here every year. Government of Telangana sends pearls for the event. Sri Raja Rajeshwara temple, Vemulawada is a site of pilgrimage for both Hindu (particularly devotees of Vishnu and Shiva) and Muslim worshippers. Built by Chalukya Kings between AD 750 and 975, the complex is named for its presiding deity Sri Raja Rajeswara Swamy, an incarnation of Lord Shiva. It houses several temples dedicated to other deities including Sri Rama, Lakshmana, Lakshmi, Ganapathy, Lord Padmanabha Swamy and Lord Bhimeshwara.This Shrine is popularly known as ‘Dakshina Kasi’ [Southern Banaras][17] and also as "Harihara Kshetram" for their being two Vaisnava Temples in main Temple complex i.e., Sri Anantha Padmanabha Swamy Temple & Sri Seetharama Chandra Swamy Temple The complex also contains a 400-year-old mosque which stands as an ample evidence for religious tolerance .The temple is located inKarimnagar District. Ramappa Temple: An inscription in the temple dates it to the year 1213 and said to have been built by a General Recherla Rudra, during the period of the Kakatiya ruler Ganapati Deva.[18] Birla Mandir, Hyderabad: Built on a 280 feet (85 m) high hillock called Naubath Pahad on a 13 acres (53,000 m2) plot in Hyderabad Basara: Gnana Saraswati Temple (Goddess of Knowledge) is located on the banks of the river Godavari in Adilabad District Nelakondapalli:NelakondapallIis famous for Birthplace of Bhakta Ramadasu (Sri Ramadas) who built the Sita Ramachandraswamy temple at Bhadrachalam, Nelakondapally is famous for 'Budha Stupa', South India's biggest budha stupha located at Nelakondaplly, It is Shariraka stupa (built on body part of Lord Mecca Masjid, is one of the oldest mosques in Hyderabad, Telangana in India, And it is one of the largest Mosques in India. Makkah Masjid is a listed heritage building in the old city of Hyderabad, close to the historic landmarks of Chowmahalla Palace, Laad Bazaar, and Charminar. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, commissioned bricks to be made from the soil brought from Mecca, the holiest site of Islam, and used them in the construction of the central arch of the mosque, thus giving the mosque its name. It formed the centerpiece around which the city was planned by  Medak Church at Medak in Telangana, India, is the largest church in Telangana and has been the cathedral church of the Diocese of Medak of the Church of South Indiasince 1947. Originally built by British Wesleyan Methodists, it was consecrated on 25 December 1924. The Medak diocese is the single largest diocese in Asia and the second in the world after the Vatican.[20] The church was built under the stewardship of the Methodist Christian, the Reverend Charles Walker Posnett, who was driven by the motto My best for my Lord. Charles Posnett had arrived in Secunderabad in 1895, and after first ministering among British soldiers at Trimullghery, had launched into the villages and had reached Medak village in 1896. Kuchadri sri venkateshwara swamy temple an ancient Hindu temple in Kuchanpally, Medak District. Other religious places include the Buddhist centres at Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta Phanigiri and Kolanpaka. Kuntala Waterfall, located in Kuntala, Adilabad district, at 45 metres (148 ft), is the biggest in the state. There are other interesting waterfalls in Telangana state. Mallela Theertham, at a distance of 58 km from Srisailam & 173 km from Hyderabad is a charming waterfall located in the dense Nallamala forest. This is one of the popular tourist attractions to visit around Hyderabad. Ethipothala Falls - at a distance of 14 km from Nagarjuna Sagar & 176 km from Hyderabad, Ethipothala waterfalls are striking falls on River Chandra Vanka (a tributary of River Krishna), down the waters of the Dam. This is one of the best tourist attractions to visit near Hyderabad & a popular waterfalls around Hyderabad city. Bheemuni Paadam Waterfalls: At a distance of 10 km from Gudur Bus Stand, 51 km from Warangal, 88 km from Khammam Bus Station and 200 km from Hyderabad, Bheemuni Paadam Waterfalls is a picturesque waterfall located at Gudur in Warangal District of Telangana. Pochera Falls (Near Kuntala Falls) - At a distance of 40 km from Nirmal, 50 km from Adilabad, 257 km from Hyderabad and 22 km from Kuntala Falls, Pochera Falls is a pretty waterfall on Kadam River. The falls are located at a distance of 10 km from Neredikonda village between Nirmal & Adilabad (a diversion is required at Boath cross roads) Gayatri Waterfalls- At a distance of 5 km from Tarnam Khurd Village, 19 km from Kuntala Waterfalls, 38 km from Nirmal, 59 km Adilabad and 270 km from Hyderabad, Gayathri Waterfalls is a beautiful place located in Adilabad district of Telangana.       तेलंगाना (तेलुगु: తెలంగాణ, तॆलंगाणा), भारत के आन्ध्र प्रदेश राज्य से अलग होकर बना भारत का २९वाँ राज्य है। हैदराबाद को दस साल के लिए तेलंगाना और आंध्र प्रदेश की संयुक्त राजधानी बनाया जाएगा। यह परतन्त्र भारत के हैदराबाद नामक राजवाडे के तेलुगूभाषी क्षेत्रों से मिलकर बना है। 'तेलंगाना' शब्द का अर्थ है - 'तेलुगूभाषियों की भूमि'। 5 दिसम्बर 2013 को मंत्रिसमूह द्वारा बनाये गए ड्राफ्ट बिल को कैबिनेट ने मंजूरी दे दी। 18 फ़रवरी 2014 को तेलंगाना बिल लोक सभा से पास हो गया तथा दो दिन पश्चात इसे राज्य सभा से भी मंजूरी मिल गयी। राष्ट्रपति के दस्तखत के साथ तेलंगाना औपचारिक तौर पर भारत का 29वां राज्य बन गया है। हालाँकि लोक सभा से इस विधेयक को पारित कराते समय आशंकित हंगामे के चलते लोकसभा-टेलिविज़न का प्रसारण रोकना पड़ा था। अभी जिस क्षेत्र को तेलंगाना कहा जाता है, उसमें आंध्र प्रदेश के 23 ज़िलों में से 10 ज़िले आते हैं। ये हैं: हैदराबाद, अदिलाबाद, खम्मम, करीमनगर, महबूबनगर, मेडक, नलगोंडा, निजामाबाद, रंगारेड्डीऔर वारंगल। इस क्षेत्र से आंध्र प्रदेश की 294 में से तेलंगाना को 119 विधानसभा सीटें और 42 लोकसभा सीटों में से 17 सीटें प्राप्त हुई है। तेलंगाना को एक अलग राज्य बनाने की बहुत सालों की कोशिशों और आंदोलन के बाद २ जून २०१४ को नया राज्य् स्थापित हुआ है। तेलंगाना की आबादी 84% हिन्दू, 12.4% मुस्लिम और 3.2% सिक्ख, ईसाई और अन्य धर्म के अनुयायी हैं। तेलंगाना की 76% लोग तेलगु बोलते हैं। 12% लोग उर्दू तथा 12% लोग अन्य भाषाएं बोलते हैं। तेलेंगाना, भारत के आंध्र प्रदेश से राज्य से अलग हुआ राज्य है, आपको बता दें कि निज़ाम के शासनकाल में तेलेंगाना  हैदराबाद स्टेट के अधीन था।  यदि तेलेंगाना को ध्यान से देखा जाये तो मिलता है कि ये राज्य के दो बड़े हिस्सों मेडक और वारंगल का भाग है जो कि पहले आंध्र प्रदेश से जुड़ा हुआ था । 2 जून 2014 को आंध्र प्रदेश से प्रथक हुआ तेलेंगाना आज एक अलग राज्य है, जिसकी राजधानी फिलहाल हैदराबाद ही है।  यदि भौगोलिक तौर पर देखा जाये तो वर्तमान तेलेंगाना की सरहद उत्तर और उत्तर पश्चिम में महाराष्ट्र, उत्तर पूर्व  में छत्तीसगढ़, पश्चिम में कर्नाटक और पूर्व में ओडिशा से मिलती है   राज्य को कैसे मिला ये नाम राज्य का तेलेंगाना नाम तेलुगू शब्द से लिया गया है। ज्ञात हो कि तेलुगू राज्य की प्रमुख भाषा है और तेलेंगाना राज्य को वर्तमान में  'तेलुगूभाषियों की भूमि' की दर्जा दिया गया है।   संस्कृति से कीजिये मुलाकात चूँकि तेलेंगाना में अलग अलग सभ्यताऔर संस्कृति के लोग रह रहे हैं तो यहां आपको अलग अलग संस्कृतियों का समागम देखने को मिलेगा। इसके अलावा आप राज्य में फारसी प्रभाव की भी एक अच्छी झलक देख सकते है,  आपको बताते चलें कि फारस की ये झलक आपको राज्य कि कला और खाने में भी दिखेगी। ज्ञात हो कि एक दक्षिण भारतीय राज्य होने के बावजूद आज तेलेंगाना में उत्तर भारत के कई प्रमुख त्योहारों को भी बड़े ही धूम धाम से मनाया जाता है।   यदि राज्य में कला की बात हो तो पोथाना( जिन्होंने श्री भागवत का तेलुगू में अनुवाद किया ) के कारण कला के क्षेत्र में भी तेलेंगानाको विशेष दर्जा प्राप्त है। यदि तेलेंगाना के पर्वों और उत्सवों की बात हो तो बोना, बठुकम्मालू और सम्मक्का सरलाम्मा जतारा राज्य के प्रमुख पर्व है।  यहां दशहरा गणेश चतुर्थी और उगादी को भी बड़े धूम धाम से मनाया जाता है।      राज्य का भोजन भोजन और खानपान के क्षेत्र में भी आज तेलेंगाना अपनी एक ख़ास पहचान रखता है।  यदि आप राज्य के भोजन को देखें तो आपको मिलेगा कि राज्य का भोजन दो भागों तेलुगू और हैदराबादी क्यूजीन में वर्गीकृत है।  जहां तेलुगू  क्यूजीन शुद्ध दक्षिण भारतीय क्यूजीन है तो वहीं हैदराबादी क्यूजीन में आपको अरब तुर्की और मुगलाई स्वाद का मिला जुला जायका चखने को मिलेगा।      राज्य के भीतर परिवहन परिवहन सुलभ और सुचारू होने के कारण पर्यटक देश के किसी भी हिस्से और विदेश से  भी आज आसानी से तेलेंगाना पहुँच सकते हैं। हैदराबाद स्थित राजीव गाँधी अंतर्राष्ट्रीय हवाई अड्डा राज्य को भारत के सभी प्रमुख हिस्सों और विदेश से भी जोड़ने का काम करता है।  इसके अलावा देश के सभी प्रमुख शहरों से तेलेंगाना पहुँचने के लिए ट्रेन और बसें भी उपलब्ध हैं।     तेलेंगाना में पर्यटन आज तेलेंगाना भारत का वो स्थान है जो हर साल लाखों पर्यटकों को अपनी तरफ आकर्षित करता है। यहां हैदराबाद स्थित चार मीनार, थए पापी हिल और कुंतला वॉटरफॉल्स आने वाले पर्यटकों के बीच आकर्षण का मुख्य केंद्र हैं।  आज राज में कई महत्त्वपूर्ण मंदिर जैसे भद्राचलम, हज़ार खम्बों का मंदिर, श्री राजा राजेश्वारा स्वामी मंदिर भी अपनी सुन्दरता और बेमिसाल वास्तु के  चलते हर साल लाहों पर्यटकों को अपनी तरफ आकर्षित कर रहे हैं।      source by national portal    

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