कार्ल हेनरिख मार्क्स -जन्म: (5 मई, 1818)
कार्ल हेनरिख मार्क्स (जन्म- 5 मई, 1818, ट्रायर, जर्मनी; मृत्यु- 14 मार्च, 1883, ब्रिटेन) एक प्रसिद्ध जर्मन दार्शनिक, अर्थशास्त्री और वैज्ञानिक समाजवाद का प्रणेता था। समाज, अर्थशास्त्र और राजनीति के बारे में मार्क्स के सिद्धांतों की सामूहिक समझ को 'मार्क्सवाद' के रूप में जाना जाता है, जिसके अंतरगत यह बताया गया था कि मानव समाज वर्ग संघर्ष के माध्यम से प्रगति करता है।
- कार्ल मार्क्स का जन्म 5 मई, 1818 ई. को त्रेवेस (प्रशा) के एक यहूदी परिवार में हुआ था। 1824 में उसके परिवार ने ईसाई धर्म स्वीकार कर लिया था।
- 17 वर्ष की अवस्था में मार्क्स ने क़ानून का अध्ययन करने के लिए बॉन विश्वविद्यालय में प्रवेश किया। तत्पश्चात् उसने बर्लिन और जेना विश्व-विद्यालयों में साहित्य, इतिहास और दर्शन का अध्ययन किया। इसी काल में वह हीगेल के दर्शन से बहुत प्रभावित हुआ।
- 1839-1841 में उसने दिमॉक्रितस और एपीक्यूरस के प्राकृतिक दर्शन पर शोघ-प्रबंध लिखकर डाक्टरेट की उपाधि प्राप्त की।
- 1859 में मार्क्स ने अपने अर्थशास्त्रीय अध्ययन के निष्कर्ष 'जुर क्रिटिक दर पोलिटिशेन एकानामी' नामक पुस्तक में प्रकाशित किये। यह पुस्तक मार्क्स की उस बृहत्तर योजना का एक भाग थी, जो उसने संपुर्ण राजनीतिक अर्थशास्त्र पर लिखने के लिए बनाई थी। किंतु कुछ ही दिनो में उसे लगा कि उपलब्ध साम्रगी उसकी योजना में पूर्ण रूपेण सहायक नहीं हो सकती। अत: उसने अपनी योजना में परिवर्तन करके नए सिरे से लिखना आंरभ किया और उसका प्रथम भाग 1867 में 'दास कैपिटल' के नाम से प्रकाशित किया।
- कार्ल मार्क्स को अपनी किताब 'द कम्युनिस्ट मनिफेस्तो' (1848) और 'दास कैपिटल' के लिए मुख्य रूप से प्रसिद्धि प्राप्त है। 'द कैपिटल' के शेष भाग मार्क्स की मृत्यु के बाद एंजेल्स ने संपादित करके प्रकाशित किए थे।
- 'वर्गसंघर्ष' का सिद्धांत कार्ल मार्क्स के 'वैज्ञानिक समाजवाद' का मेरूदंड है।
- मार्क्स का स्मारक मार्क्स-एंगेल्स-फोरम, बर्लिन-मित्ते में स्थापित है।
- पूर्वी जर्मनी में बर्लिन की दीवार के पतन तक कार्ल मार्क्स का चित्र वहाँ के उच्चतम मूल्य के नोटों पर था।
Karl Marx ( 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, journalist and revolutionary socialist.
Born in Trier to a middle-class family, Marx studied law and Hegelian philosophy. Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile in London, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and publish his writings, researching in the British Museum. His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, and the three-volume Das Kapital. His political and philosophical thought had enormous influence on subsequent intellectual, economic and political history and his name has been used as an adjective, a noun and a school of social theory.
Marx's theories about society, economics and politics—collectively understood as Marxism—hold that human societies develop through class struggle. In capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes (known as the bourgeoisie) that control the means of production and the working classes (known as the proletariat) that enable these means by selling their labour power in return for wages. Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism, Marx predicted that, like previous socio-economic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and eventually the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers. Marx actively pressed for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation.
Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and his work has been both lauded and criticised. His work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought.Many intellectuals, labour unions, artists and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's work, with many modifying or adapting his ideas. Marx is typically cited as one of the principal architects of modern social science.
Marx was born on 5 May 1818 to Heinrich Marx (1777–1838) and Henriette Pressburg (1788–1863). He was born at Brückengasse 664 in Trier, a town then part of the Kingdom of Prussia's Province of the Lower Rhine. Marx was ethnically Jewish. His maternal grandfather was a Dutch rabbi, while his paternal line had supplied Trier's rabbis since 1723, a role taken by his grandfather Meier Halevi Marx.His father, as a child known as Herschel, was the first in the line to receive a secular education and he became a lawyer and lived a relatively wealthy and middle-class existence, with his family owning a number of Moselle vineyards. Prior to his son's birth, and after the abrogation of Jewish emancipation in the Rhineland, Herschel converted from Judaism to join the state Evangelical Church of Prussia, taking on the German forename of Heinrich over the Yiddish Herschel.Marx was a third cousin once removed of German Romantic poet Heinrich Heine, also born to a German Jewish family in the Rhineland, with whom he became a frequent correspondent in later life.
Marx’s birthplace, now Brückenstraße 10, in Trier. The family occupied two rooms on the ground floor and three on the first floor.Purchased by the Social Democratic Party of Germany in 1928, it now houses a museum devoted to him.
Largely non-religious, Heinrich was a man of the Enlightenment, interested in the ideas of the philosophers Immanuel Kant and Voltaire. A classical liberal, he took part in agitation for a constitution and reforms in Prussia, then governed by an absolute monarchy. In 1815, Heinrich Marx began work as an attorney and in 1819 moved his family to a ten-room property near the Porta Nigra. His wife, Henriette Pressburg, was a Dutch Jewish woman from a prosperous business family that later founded the company Philips Electronics. Her sister Sophie Pressburg (1797–1854) married Lion Philips (1794–1866) and was the grandmother of both Gerard and Anton Philips and great-grandmother to Frits Philips. Lion Philips was a wealthy Dutch tobacco manufacturer and industrialist, upon whom Karl and Jenny Marx would later often come to rely for loans while they were exiled in London.
Little is known of Marx's childhood. The third of nine children, he became the oldest son when his brother Moritz died in 1819. Young Marx and his surviving siblings, Sophie, Hermann, Henriette, Louise, Emilie and Caroline, were baptised into the Lutheran Church in August 1824 and their mother in November 1825.Young Marx was privately educated by his father until 1830, when he entered Trier High School, whose headmaster, Hugo Wyttenbach, was a friend of his father. By employing many liberal humanists as teachers, Wyttenbach incurred the anger of the local conservative government. Subsequently, police raided the school in 1832 and discovered that literature espousing political liberalism was being distributed among the students. Considering the distribution of such material a seditious act, the authorities instituted reforms and replaced several staff during Marx's attendance
In October 1835 at the age of 17, Marx travelled to the University of Bonn wishing to study philosophy and literature, but his father insisted on law as a more practical field. Due to a condition referred to as a "weak chest", Marx was excused from military duty when he turned 18. While at the University at Bonn, Marx joined the Poets' Club, a group containing political radicals that were monitored by the police. Marx also joined the Trier Tavern Club drinking society (Landsmannschaft der Treveraner), at one point serving as club co-president. Additionally, Marx was involved in certain disputes, some of which became serious: in August 1836 he took part in a duel with a member of the university's Borussian Korps.Although his grades in the first term were good, they soon deteriorated, leading his father to force a transfer to the more serious and academic University of Berlin.
Following the death of his wife Jenny in December 1881, Marx developed a catarrh that kept him in ill health for the last 15 months of his life. It eventually brought on the bronchitis and pleurisy that killed him in London on 14 March 1883 (age 64), dying a stateless person. Family and friends in London buried his body in Highgate Cemetery (East), London, on 17 March 1883 in an area reserved for agnostics and atheists (George Eliot's grave is nearby). There were between nine and eleven mourners at his funeral.
Several of his closest friends spoke at his funeral, including Wilhelm Liebknecht and Friedrich Engels. Engels' speech included the passage:
On the 14th of March, at a quarter to three in the afternoon, the greatest living thinker ceased to think. He had been left alone for scarcely two minutes, and when we came back we found him in his armchair, peacefully gone to sleep—but forever.
Marx's surviving daughters Eleanor and Laura, as well as Charles Longuet and Paul Lafargue, Marx's two French socialist sons-in-law, were also in attendance. He had been predeceased by his wife and his eldest daughter, the latter dying a few months earlier in January 1883. Liebknecht, a founder and leader of the German Social Democratic Party, gave a speech in German and Longuet, a prominent figure in the French working-class movement, made a short statement in French.Two telegrams from workers' parties in France and Spain were also read out. Together with Engels's speech, this constituted the entire programme of the funeral.Non-relatives attending the funeral included three communist associates of Marx: Friedrich Lessner, imprisoned for three years after the Cologne communist trial of 1852; G. Lochner, whom Engels described as "an old member of the Communist League"; and Carl Schorlemmer, a professor of chemistry in Manchester, a member of the Royal Society and a communist activist involved in the 1848 Baden revolution. Another attendee of the funeral was Ray Lankester, a British zoologist who would later become a prominent academic.
Upon his own death in 1895, Engels left Marx's two surviving daughters a "significant portion" of his considerable estate (valued in 2011 at US$4.8m).
Marx and his family were reburied on a new site nearby in November 1954. The tomb at the new site, unveiled on 14 March 1956, bears the carved message: "Workers of All Lands Unite", the final line of The Communist Manifesto; and, from the 11th "Thesis on Feuerbach" (as edited by Engels), "The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways—the point however is to change it". The Communist Party of Great Britain had the monument with a portrait bust by Laurence Bradshaw erected and Marx's original tomb had only humble adornment. In 1970, there was an unsuccessful attempt to destroy the monument using a homemade bomb.
The Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm remarked: "One cannot say Marx died a failure" because although he had not achieved a large following of disciples in Britain, his writings had already begun to make an impact on the leftist movements in Germany and Russia. Within 25 years of his death, the continental European socialist parties that acknowledged Marx's influence on their politics were each gaining between 15 and 47 per cent in those countries with representative democratic elections.