नेपोलियन बोनापार्ट -मृत्यु: (5 मई, 1821)

May 05, 2017

नेपोलियन बोनापार्ट (जन्म- 15 अगस्त, 1769; मृत्यु- 5 मई, 1821) एक फ़्राँसीसी सैन्य अधिकारी और राजनीतिक नेता था। वह फ़्राँसीसी क्रांति के बाद के चरणों के दौरान प्रमुखता से छाया रहा। वह क़रीब दशक तक पूरे पश्चिमी और मध्य यूरोप का स्वामी रहा। नेपोलियन ने अपने सफल अभियानों, कूटनीतिक चातुर्य, संधियों और वैवाहिक सम्बन्धों से यूरोप का नक्शा ही बदल दिया था। उसने फ़्राँस की जर्जर सेना को आधुनिक और शक्तिशाली सेना में परिवर्तित कर दिया था। फ़्राँस के मेधावी और वीर सपूतों को सम्मानित करने की परम्परा की शुरुआत उसने की थी। विश्व इतिहास में उसका हस्तक्षेप अनेक परवर्ती महत्त्वपूर्ण घटनाओं का गवाह बना।


जन्म-
नेपोलियन का जन्म कोर्सिका, फ़्राँस में 15 अगस्त, 1769 को भूमध्य सागर के प्रायद्वीप में हुआ था। उसने बीयेंन और पेरिस के सैन्य स्कूलों से शिक्षा प्राप्त की थी। मात्र 16 वर्ष की आयु में ही वह फ़्राँसीसी सेना में भर्ती हो गया था। तूलो पर ब्रिटेन के हमले के समय वह उनके बचाव के लिए आया और अंग्रेज़ों को खदेड़ने और वहाँ से मार भगाने में सफल रहा। राब्सपियरे के पतन के बाद नेपोलियन बंदी बना लिया गया था। वह गिलोटिन की भेंट चढ़ गया होता, लेकिन उसका कौशल व भाग्य तथा बारास व कार्नोट नामक डायरेक्टरों से उसका सम्पर्क इस मुश्किल समय में उसके काम आया। अपदस्थ सम्राट के वफ़ादारों को कुचलकर नेपोलियन डायरेक्टरों और साथ ही अपने सफल इटली अभियान से जनता की नजरों में चढ़ गया। 1799 से 1804 ई. तक वह प्रीमियर कौनसूल की हैसियत से फ़्राँस का शासक भी नियुक्त किया गया। 1804 से 1814 ई. तक तथा वर्ष 1815 ई. में सौ दिनों के लिए वह फ़्राँस का सम्राट और इटली का राजा रहा। अक्टूबर, 1813 में लाइपजिग में पराजय के पूर्व वह क़रीब एक दशक तक सम्पूर्ण पश्चिमी व मध्य यूरोप का स्वामी बना रहा था। नेपोलियन सम्पूर्ण यूरोप का एकछत्र शासक बनना चाहता था। उसने ब्रिटेन की महाद्वीपीय नाकेबंदी करने की भी कोशिश की और भारत पर अभियान करने के प्रयोजन से मिस्र पर आक्रमण किया और रूस-अभियान में मास्को तक धावा बोला।
नेपोलियन ने अपनी प्रथम पत्नी 'जोसेफ़िन' के निस्संतान रहने पर ऑस्ट्रिया के सम्राट की पुत्री 'मैरी लुईस' से दूसरा विवाह किया, जिससे उसे संतान प्राप्त हुई थी और पिता बन सका।


अपने अनेक सफल अभियानों को पूरा करने के बाद महानायक नेपोलियन को ब्रिटिश सेनापति 'नेल्सन' से मात खानी पड़ी। 'वॉटरलू की लड़ाई', 1815 ई. में नेपोलियन की पराजय हुई। इस निर्णायक पराजय ने उसके विराट सपने को, जो उसने देखा था, सदा के लिए भंग कर दिया। पराजय के उपरांत नेपोलियन को बन्दी बना लिया गया और उसे 'सेन्ट हैलेना द्वीप' पर भेज दिया गया।
नेपोलियन बोनापार्ट की मौत को लेकर तरह-तरह की बातें कही जाती हैं। अधिकांश इतिहासकार ये मानते हैं कि उसकी मौत पेट के कैंसर की वजह से हुई थी। 'वॉटरलू की लड़ाई' में हार जाने के बाद नेपोलियन को 1821 में 'सेन्ट हैलेना द्वीप' निर्वासित कर दिया गया था, जहाँ 52 साल की उम्र में उसकी मृत्यु हो गई, लेकिन सन 2001 में फ़्राँसीसी विशेषज्ञों ने नेपोलियन के बाल का परीक्षण करके पाया कि उसमें 'आर्सनिक' नामक ज़हर था। यह माना जाता है कि संभवत सेन्ट हैलेना के तत्कालीन ब्रिटिश गवर्नर ने फ़्राँस के काउंट के साथ मिलकर नेपोलियन की हत्या की साज़िश रची थी। लेकिन अमरीकी वैज्ञानिकों ने बिल्कुल ही अलग व्याख्या की है, उन्होंने कहा कि नेपोलियन की बीमारी का जो उपचार किया गया था, उसी ने उसे मार दिया। नेपोलियन को नियमित रूप से 'पोटेशियम टार्ट्रेट' नामक ज़हरीला नमक दिया जाता था, जिससे वह उल्टी कर सके और ऐनिमा लगाया जाता था। इससे नेपोलियन के शरीर में पोटेशियम की कमी हो गई, जो कि हृदय के लिए घातक होती है। नेपोलियन को उसकी आंतों की सफ़ाई के लिए 600 मिलिग्राम मरक्यूरिक क्लोराइड दिया गया और दो दिन बाद ही उसकी मृत्यु हो गई।


Napoléon Bonaparte (French 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.


He was born Napoleone di Buonaparte (Italian: [napoleˈoːne di bwɔnaˈparte]) in Corsica to a relatively modest family of Italian ancestry from the minor nobility. He was serving as an artillery officer in the French army when the French Revolution erupted in 1789. He rapidly rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. The French Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and their Italian allies—winning virtually every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year, and becoming a war hero in France. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power. He orchestrated a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic. His ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and he became the first Emperor of the French in 1804. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph over the Russian Empire and Austrian Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz which led to the Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, then marched his Grande Armée deep into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. France then forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram in July.


Napoleon then invaded the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, and declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies. The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and routinely violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon into another war. The French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The campaign destroyed Russian cities but resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armée and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon by his enemies. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in the War of the Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil. The Allies then invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, and the Bourbon dynasty was restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition which defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years later at the age of 51.


Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered and controlled, such as the Low Countries, Switzerland, and large parts of modern Italy and Germany. He implemented fundamental liberal policies in France and throughout Western Europe.[noteHis Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. British historian Andrew Roberts states: "The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on—were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire".



The ancestors of Napoleon descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica from Liguria in the 16th century. His parents Carlo Maria di Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino maintained an ancestral home called "Casa Buonaparte" in Ajaccio. Napoleon was born there on 15 August 1769, their fourth child and third son. A boy and girl were born first but died in infancy. He had an elder brother, Joseph, and younger siblings Lucien, Elisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline, and Jérôme. Napoleon was baptised as a Catholic Although he was born "Napoleone di Buonaparte" (Italian: [napoleˈoːne di bwɔnaˈparte]), he changed his name to "Napoléon Bonaparte" (French: ) when he was 27 in 1796 upon his first marriage.


Head and shoulders portrait of a white-haired, portly, middle-aged man with a pinkish complexion, blue velvet coat, and a ruffle
The nationalist Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli; portrait by Richard Cosway, 1798
Napoleon was born the same year the Republic of Genoa, a former commune of Italy, transferred Corsica to France. The state ceded sovereign rights a year before his birth in 1768, was transferred to France during the year of his birth and formally incorporated as a province in 1770, after 200 years under nominal Genoese rule. His father was an attorney who went on to be named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1777. The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, whose firm discipline restrained a rambunctious child. Napoleon's maternal grandmother had married into the Swiss Fesch family in her second marriage, and Napoleon's uncle, the cardinal Joseph Fesch, would fulfill a role as protector of the Bonaparte family for some years. Napoleon's noble, moderately affluent background afforded him greater opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of the time.


When he turned 9 years old, he moved to the French mainland and enrolled at a religious school in Autun in January 1779. In May, he transferred with a scholarship to a military academy at Brienne-le-Château. In his youth he was an outspoken Corsican nationalist and supported the state's independence from France. Like many Corsicans, Napoleon spoke and read Corsican (as his mother tongue) and Italian (as the official language of Corsica). He began learning French in school at around age 10. Although he became fluent in French, he spoke with a distinctive Corsican accent and never learned how to spell French correctly.He was routinely bullied by his peers for his accent, birthplace, short stature, mannerisms and inability to speak French quickly. Bonaparte became reserved and melancholy applying himself to reading. An examiner observed that Napoleon "has always been distinguished for his application in mathematics. He is fairly well acquainted with history and geography ... This boy would make an excellent sailor".In early adulthood, he briefly intended to become a writer; he authored a history of Corsica and a romantic novella.


On completion of his studies at Brienne in 1784, Napoleon was admitted to the École Militaire in Paris. He trained to become an artillery officer and, when his father's death reduced his income, was forced to complete the two-year course in one year. He was the first Corsican to graduate from the École Militaire. He was examined by the famed scientist Pierre-Simon Laplace.Napoleon Bonaparte, aged 23, lieutenant-colonel of a battalion of Corsican Republican volunteers. Portrait by Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux.


Upon graduating in September 1785, Bonaparte was commissioned a second lieutenant in La Fère artillery regiment.He served in Valence and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, and took nearly two years' leave in Corsica and Paris during this period. At this time, he was a fervent Corsican nationalist, and wrote to Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli in May 1789, "As the nation was perishing I was born. Thirty thousand Frenchmen were vomited on to our shores, drowning the throne of liberty in waves of blood. Such was the odious sight which was the first to strike me".


He spent the early years of the Revolution in Corsica, fighting in a complex three-way struggle among royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. He was a supporter of the republican Jacobin movement, organising clubs in Corsica, and was given command over a battalion of volunteers. He was promoted to captain in the regular army in July 1792, despite exceeding his leave of absence and leading a riot against French troops.


He came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to split with France and sabotage the Corsican contribution to the Expédition de Sardaigne, by preventing a French assault on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena. Bonaparte and his family fled to the French mainland in June 1793 because of the split with Paoli.
Napoleon's personal physician, Barry O'Meara, warned London that his declining state of health was mainly caused by the harsh treatment. Napoleon confined himself for months on end in his damp and wretched habitation of Longwood.


In February 1821, Napoleon's health began to deteriorate rapidly, and he reconciled with the Catholic Church. He died on 5 May 1821, after confession, Extreme Unction and Viaticum in the presence of Father Ange Vignali. His last words were, France, l'armée, tête d'armée, Joséphine ("France, the army, head of the army, Joséphine").


Napoleon's original death mask was created around 6 May, although it is not clear which doctor created it. In his will, he had asked to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but the British governor said he should be buried on Saint Helena, in the Valley of the Willows.



In 1840, Louis Philippe I obtained permission from the British to return Napoleon's remains to France. On 15 December 1840, a state funeral was held. The hearse proceeded from the Arc de Triomphe down the Champs-Élysées, across the Place de la Concorde to the Esplanade des Invalides and then to the cupola in St Jérôme's Chapel, where it remained until the tomb designed by Louis Visconti was completed.



During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant, poised to invade. Napoleon was mocked in British newspapers as a short tempered small man and he was nicknamed "Little Boney in a strong fit". A nursery rhyme warned children that Bonaparte ravenously ate naughty people; the "bogeyman". At 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m), he was the height of an average French male but short for an aristocrat or officer (part of why he was assigned to the artillery, since at the time the infantry and cavalry required more commanding figures). It is possible he was taller at 5 feet 7 inches (1.70 m) due to the difference in the French measurement of inches.[249] Some historians believe that the reason for the mistake about his size at death came from use of an obsolete old French yardstick (a French foot equals 33 cm, while an English foot equals 30.47 cm).[248] Napoleon was a champion of the metric system and had no use for the old yardsticks. It is more likely that he was 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m), the height he was measured at on St. Helena (a British island), since he would have most likely been measured with an English yardstick rather than a yardstick of the Old French Regime. Napoleon surrounded himself with tall bodyguards and was affectionately nicknamed le petit caporal (the little corporal), reflecting his reported camaraderie with his soldiers rather than his height.


When he became First Consul and later Emperor, Napoleon eschewed his general's uniform and habitually wore the green colonel uniform (non-Hussar) of a colonel of the Chasseur à Cheval of the Imperial Guard, the regiment that served as his personal escort many times, with a large bicorne. He also habitually wore (usually on Sundays) the blue uniform of a colonel of the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers (blue with white facings and red cuffs). He also wore his Légion d'honneur star, medal and ribbon, and the Order of the Iron Crown decorations, white French-style culottes and white stockings. This was in contrast to the complex uniforms with many decorations of his marshals and those around him.


In his later years he gained quite a bit of weight and had a complexion considered pale or sallow, something contemporaries took note of. Novelist Paul de Kock, who saw him in 1811 on the balcony of the Tuileries, called Napoleon "yellow, obese, and bloated".[250] A British captain who met him in 1815 stated "I felt very much disappointed, as I believe everyone else did, in his appearance ... He is fat, rather what we call pot-bellied, and although his leg is well shaped, it is rather clumsy ... He is very sallow, with light grey eyes, and rather thin, greasy-looking brown hair, and altogether a very nasty, priestlike-looking fellow."


The stock character of Napoleon is a comically short "petty tyrant" and this has become a cliché in popular culture. He is often portrayed wearing a large bicorne hat with a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the painting produced in 1812 by Jacques-Louis David. In 1908 Alfred Adler, a psychologist, cited Napoleon to describe an inferiority complex in which short people adopt an over-aggressive behaviour to compensate for lack of height; this inspired the term Napoleon complex.


Napoleon's personal physician, Barry O'Meara, warned London that his declining state of health was mainly caused by the harsh treatment. Napoleon confined himself for months on end in his damp and wretched habitation of Longwood.


In February 1821, Napoleon's health began to deteriorate rapidly, and he reconciled with the Catholic Church. He died on 5 May 1821, after confession, Extreme Unction and Viaticum in the presence of Father Ange Vignali. His last words were, France, l'armée, tête d'armée, Joséphine ("France, the army, head of the army, Joséphine").


Napoleon's original death mask was created around 6 May, although it is not clear which doctor created it. In his will, he had asked to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but the British governor said he should be buried on Saint Helena, in the Valley of the Willows.



In 1840, Louis Philippe I obtained permission from the British to return Napoleon's remains to France. On 15 December 1840, a state funeral was held. The hearse proceeded from the Arc de Triomphe down the Champs-Élysées, across the Place de la Concorde to the Esplanade des Invalides and then to the cupola in St Jérôme's Chapel, where it remained until the tomb designed by Louis Visconti was completed.


In 1861, Napoleon's remains were entombed in a porphyry stone sarcophagus in the crypt under the dome at Les Invalides.