पन्नालाल पटेल -जन्म: (7 मई, 1912)

May 07, 2017

पन्नालाल पटेल (जन्म: 7 मई, 1912, राजस्थान; मृत्यु: 5 अप्रैल, 1989, गुजरात) गुजराती भाषा के जानेमाने साहित्यकार थे। उन्हें 'रणजितराम पुरस्कार' तथा 'ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार' से सम्मानित किया गया था। वे गुजराती के अग्रणी कथाकार रहे। लगभग छह दशक पूर्व गुजराती साहित्य जगत् में उनका अविर्भाव एक चमत्कार माना गया था।


जीवन परिचय
गुजराती साहित्यकार पन्नालाल पटेल का जन्म 7 मई, 1912 को राजस्थान राज्य के डूंगरपुर ज़िले के मंडली नामक गाँव में हुआ था। उनके पिता एक साधारण किसान थे। पन्नालाल जी की शिक्षा-दीक्षा के बारे में जानकारी के रूप में कहा गया है कि उन्होंने प्राथमिक तक शिक्षा ग्रहण की थी, जिसको अंग्रेज़ी में चार मानक से पहचाना जाता है।
पन्नालाल पटेल के लेखन कार्य के बारे में बताया जाये तो अगणित लेखन कार्य और प्रकाशन कार्य उन्होंने किया था, जिसमें उपन्यास, कहानियाँ, नाटक, जीवनी, बच्चों के साहित्य और विविध प्रकार के अन्य लेख भी शामिल हैं। उनके सहित्य का भारत की लगभग सभी भाषाओं में अनुवाद हो चुका है।


लगभग छह दशक पूर्व गुजराती साहित्य जगत् में पन्नालाल पटेल का अविर्भाव एक चमत्कार माना गया। ग्रामीण जीवन के आत्मीय एवं प्रामाणिक चित्रण के साथ ही उन्होंने लोकभाषा का प्रयोग कुछ इस प्रकार किया कि उसकी गति और गीतात्मकता गुजराती गद्य के सन्दर्भ में अपूर्व मानी गयी। पन्नालाल पटेल की सर्वोत्कृष्ट इक्कीस कहानियों की चयनिका ‘गूँगे सुर बाँसुरी के’ कथा साहित्य के सुधी पाठकों के लिए उपलब्ध हो चुकी है। इन कहानियों में उन्होंने प्रायः दलित, पीड़ित, उत्पीड़ित मनुष्य को अपना विषय बनाया है।
'जीवी' पन्नालाल पटेल के प्रसिद्ध उपन्यासों में से एक है। यह उपन्यास राजस्थान और गुजरात के सीमा-प्रदेशवर्ती एक गाँव पर आधारित है और इसमें आंचलिक उपन्यासों की परम्परा का नितान्त स्वाभाविक तथा अत्यन्त भव्य रूप देखने को मिलता है। इस उपन्यास के साल-सवा साल के कथा-काल में ग्राम्य-जीवन की सरलता, निश्छलता, अन्ध-विश्वास और बात पर मर मिटने की वृत्ति पग-पग पर प्रकट होती है। भाषा ठेठ ग्रामीण है, जिसमें लेखक ने अनेक बहुमूल्य अनुभव सूक्तियों के रूप में पिरो दिए हैं। लेखक का कथाशिल्प अद्वितीय है। मेले से ही उपन्यास का आरम्भ होता है और मेले से ही अन्त।


पुरस्कार व सम्मान
भारतीय साहित्य में विशिष्ट योगदान के लिए पन्नालाल पटेल को 1950 में 'रणजितराम पुरस्कार' से सम्मानित किया गया था और 1985 में 'ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार' से भी सम्मानित किया गया था।
पन्नालाल पटेल की मृत्यु 5 अप्रैल सन 1989 को अहमदाबाद, गुजरात में हुई।


 


Pannalal Nanalal Patel (7 May 1912 – 6 April 1989) was a Gujarati author. He wrote more than 20 short story collections, such as Sukhdukhna Sathi (1940) and Vatrakne Kanthe (1952), and more than 20 social novels, such as Malela Jeev (1941), Manvini Bhavai (1947) and Bhangyana Bheru (1957), and several mythological novels. He received the Jnanpith Award in 1985 for Manvini Bhavai. Some of his works were translated as well as adapted into plays and films.


He was born on 7 May 1912 in Mandli village (now in Dungarpur, Rajasthan) to Nanasha aka Nanalal and Hiraba, an Anjana Chaudhari family. He is youngest among his four siblings. His father was a farmer and used to recite Ramayana, Okhaharan and other mythological stories for his village. This earned his house a nickname "abode of learning". His father died during his childhood and his mother Hiraba raised the children.


His education progressed with many difficulty due to poverty. He could study up to the only fourth standard at Sir Pratap High School, Idar. During school days, he befriended his schoolmate Umashankar Joshi. For a brief period, he worked as a manager in a liquor manufacturing company in Dungarpur. He wrote his first novel while working as a domestic help in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.


In 1936, he accidentally met his old friend Umashankar Joshi who persuaded him to write. He wrote his first short story Sheth Ni Sharda (1936). Later, his stories published in many Gujarati magazines.[6] In 1940, he received recognition for his first novel Valamana (The Send-off), followed by Malela Jeev (1941), Manvini Bhavai (1947) and many other novels. In 1971, he started a publishing company Sadhana in Ahmedabad along with his two sons. During the later years, he mostly wrote novels based on Hindu mythology and epics.


He died on 6 April 1989 in Ahmedabad following brain hemorrhage.


He wrote 61 novels, 26 short story collections and many other works. He wrote his works mostly in the native idioms of Sabarkantha district in north Gujarat.


Love has been central theme of his many novels. He depicted in his works the rural life of Gujarat artificially. His novels are centers around the village, its people, their lives, hopes and aspirations, their problems and predicaments. Malela Jeev (1941), a story of unfulfilled love between Kanji and Jivi having born in different castes, is considered as one of his best novels. His novel Manvini Bhavai (1947) is rated as most powerful portrayal of Gujarat's rural life and the exploration of rural life during the early 1900s. His novel Na Chhutke (1955) is based on Satyagraha movements of Mahatma Gandhi and it enumerates Gandhi's various endeavours for freedom of India and spiritual uplifting of Indian people. His other novels depicting rural life are Bhangyana Bheru (1957), Ghammar Valonu Vol 1-2 (1968), Fakiro (1955), Manakhavatar (1961), Karoliyanu Jalu (1963), Meen Matina Manvi (1966), Kanku (1970), Ajavali Rat Amasni (1971). His novels depicting urban life less entertaining than rural life. Bhiru Sathi (1943) was his first novel. His other novels depicting urban life are Yauvan Vol 1-2 (1944), Padagha and Padchhaya (1960), Ame Be Baheno Vol 1-2 (1962), Andhi Ashadhni (1964), Pranayna Jujva Pot (1969), Allad Chhokari (1972), Ek Anokhi Preet (1972), Nathi Paranya Nathi Kunwara (1974), Raw Material (1983). Galalsing (1972) is historical novel of love and valour.


His novels other than theme of love are Pachhale Barane (1947), Vali Vatanma (1966), Eklo (1973), Taag (1979), Pageru (1981). Angaro (1981) is his detective novel. Param Vaishanav Narasinh Mehta and Jene Jivi Janyu (1984) are his biographical novels of Narsinh Mehta and Ravishankar Maharaj respectively. Nagadnarayan (1967) and Marakatlal (1973) are his humorous novels.


During his later years, he wrote stories based on characters of epics, Mahabharata and Ramayana, and Puranas and other Hindu mythological stories. He preserved the original story and its miraculous themes but gave new meanings at several instances. His such works include Parth ne Kaho Chadave Ban Vol 1-5 (1974), Rame Seetan Marya Jo! Vol 1-4 (1976), Krishna Jivanleela Vol 1-5 (1977), Shivaparvati Vol 1-6 (1979), Bhishmani Banshaiyya Vol 1-3 (1980), Kach-Devyani (1981), Devyani-Yayayti Vol 1-2 (1982), Satyabhamano Manushi-Pranaya (1984), (Manavdehe) Kamdev Rati (1984), (Mahabharatano Pratham Pranay) Bheem-Hidimba (1984), Arjunno Vanvas Ke Pranaypravas (1984), Pradyamna-Prabhavati (1984), Shri Krishnani Aath Pataranio (1984), Shikhandi Stree Ke Puraush? (1984), Revatighela Baldevji (1984), Sahdev-Bhanumatino Pranay (1984), Kubja Ane Shri Krishna (1984), (Narma Nari) Il-Ila (1986), (Amarlok-Mrityuloknu Sahjeevan) Urvashi-Pururava (1986).


He wrote more than 450 short stories. His short story collections are Sukh Dukhna Sathi (1940), Jindagina Khel (1941), Jivo Dand (1941), Lakhcorasi (1944), Panetarna Rang (1946), Ajab Manavi (1947), Sacha Shamana (1949), Vatrakne Kanthe (1952), Orata (1954), Parevada (1956), Manna Morla (1958), Kadavo Ghuntado (1958), Tilottama (1960), Dilni Vaat (1962), Dharati Abhna Chheta (1962), Tyagi-Anuragi (1963), Dilaso (1964), Chitareli Diwalo (1965), Morlina Munga Sur (1966), Malo (1967), Vatno Katko (1969), Anwar (1970), Koi Deshi Koi Pardeshi (1971), Asmani Najar (1972), Binni (1973), Chhanako (1975), Gharnu Ghar (1979) and Narato (1981).


Jamairaj (1952) is collection of one-act plays. Dholia Sag Seesamna (1963) and Bhane Narsaiyo (1977) are his original three-act plays. Kankan (1968) and Allad Chhokari (1971) is play adaptation of his novels Fakiro and Allad Chhokari respectively. Chando Shen Shamalo? (1960), Sapanana Sathi (1967) and Kanan are Gujarati adaptations of western plays. Swapna (1978) is an adaptation of a story by Aurobindo.


He also wrote Children's literature also. Vartakillol Vol 1-2 (1972, 1973), Balkillol Vol 1-10 (1972), Rishikulni Kathao Vol 1-4 (1973), Devno Didhel Vol 1-5 (1975), Mahabharat Kishorkatha (1976). Ramayan Kishorkatha (1980), Shri Krishna Kishorkatha (1980), Satyayugni Kathao Vol 1-5 (1981) are his works for children and teens.


Alapzalap (1973) is his autobiographical work depicting his childhood and teenage. Pannalalni Shreshth Vartao (1958), Pannalalno Vartavaibhav (1963), Vineli Navalikao (1973), Purnayognu Achaman (1978), Lokgunjan (1984) are his edited and selected works collections. His other works are Alakmalak (1986) and Sarjanni Suvarna Smaranika (1986).


Jindagi Sanjeevani Vol 1–7 is his autobiography.