तेनज़िंग नोर्गे - मृत्यु: (9 मई, 1986)

May 09, 2017

तेनज़िंग नोर्गे ( जन्म- मई, 1914, तिब्बत; मृत्यु- 9 मई, 1986) जिन्हें 'शेरपा तेनज़िंग' कहा जाता है, विश्व की सबसे ऊँची चोटी माउंट एवरेस्ट पर फतेह पाने वाले प्रथम भारतीय थे। उन्होंने न्यूजीलैंड के प्रसिद्ध पर्वतारोही एडमंड हिलेरी के साथ 29 मार्च, 1953 को 8,848 मीटर ऊँचाई वाले पर्वत एवरेस्ट की चोटी पर चढ़ने में सबसे पहले सफलता प्राप्त की थी।


 परिचय-
तेनज़िंग का जन्म मई, 1914 में तिब्बत की खर्ता घाटी में एक गरीब किसान परिवार में हुआ था। उनके जन्म की सही तिथि मालूम नहीं है लेकिन फसलों व मौसम के अनुसार उनका जन्म मई के अन्त में हुआ था। एवरेस्ट पर्वत पर चढ़ाई के पश्चात् वह अपना जन्मदिन 29 मई को मनाने लगे थे। उनका बचपन का नाम ‘नामग्याल वागंडी’ था, लेकिन लामा प्रमुख ने उनका नाम बदल कर ‘नगावांग तेनज़िंग नोर्गे’ कर दिया था, जिसका अर्थ है- धनी, भाग्यशाली, धर्म को मानने वाला। उनके पिता घांग ला मिंगमा याक पालने वाले थे। उनकी मां का नाम डोक्यो किन्जम था। उनकी मां उनके पर्वतारोहण तक जीवित थीं। अपने माता-पिता के 13 बच्चों में वह 11वीं संतान थे, जिनमें से अधिकांश की मृत्यु हो गई थी। तेनज़िंग को खुमजंग भूटिया नाम से भी पुकारा जाता था। वह बुद्ध धर्म के अनुयायी थे। उन्होंने भारत की नागरिकता 1933 में ग्रहण कर ली थी। वह बचपन में दो बार काठमांडू भाग गए थे। बाद में 19 वर्ष की उम्र में पश्चिम बंगाल के दार्जिलिंग में शेरपा जाति के साथ रहने लगे। कॉफ़ी उनका प्रिय पेय और कुत्ते पालना उनका मुख्य शौक़ था।
तेनज़िंग ने तीन बार विवाह किया था। पहली पत्नी दावा फुटी की युवावस्था में 1944 में मृत्यु हो गई। अन्य पत्नियों के नाम आंग लाहमू तथा डक्कू थे। उनके बच्चों के नाम पेम, नीमा, जामलिंग व नोर्बू थे।


माउंट एवरेस्ट पर विजय
1930 में 3 ब्रिटिश अधिकारियों ने उत्तरी तिब्बत की ओर से माउंट एवरेस्ट पर चढ़ने का प्रयास किया था, तब तेनज़िंग ने उनके साथ ऊँचाई तक कुली का कार्य किया था। अन्य कई बार तेनज़िंग को चढ़ाई करने का अवसर मिला। सबसे ठठिन चढ़ाई उन्होंने 1940 के दशक में नन्दा देवी पूर्वी चोटी की की थी। 1947 में उन्होंने पुन: चढ़ने का प्रयास किया, जिसमें अनधिकृत रूप से कई देशों के तीन लोग चढ़ाई कर रहे थे। परन्तु 22,000 फीट की ऊँचाई पर जबरदस्त तूफान के कारण प्रयास विफल हो गया। तीनों लोग हार मानकर वापस लौट आए। 1952 में स्विस लोगों ने पुन: एवरेस्ट पर चढ़ने का प्रयास किया। रेमंड लैम्बर्ट के नेतृत्व में गम्भीरता पूर्वक चढ़ाई का प्रयास नेपाल की की ओर से किया गया। लैम्बर्ट 8599 मीटर की रिकार्ड ऊंचाई तक पहुँचने में सफल रहे। 1953 में जॉन हंट एक्सपेडीशन में उन्होंने सातवीं बार एवरेस्ट पर चढ़ने का प्रयास किया और हिलेरी सर्वप्रथम एवरेस्ट पर पहुँचने में सफल रहे। उनके साथ ही तेनज़िंग ने भी सफलता प्राप्त की। उनका वापस आने पर भारत व नेपाल में भव्य स्वागत किया गया। इन लोगों की भगवान बुद्ध तथा शिव का अवतार मान कर पूजा की जाने लगी। उन्हें ब्रिटिश सरकार की ओर से ‘जॉर्ज मेडल प्रदान’ किया गया। एक मजेदार बात यह रही कि एवरेस्ट की चोटी पर जितने भी फोटो खींचे गए, उनमें केवल तेनज़िंग ही दिखाई दे रहे थे। बाद में पता लगा कि तेनज़िंग को कैमरे से फोटो खींचना नहीं आता था, अत: एवरेस्ट की चोटी पर हिलेरी फोटो खींचते रहे थे।


उपलब्धियाँ-
-तेनज़िंग नोर्गे, एडमडं हिलेरी के साथ विश्व में सवर्प्रथम एवरेस्ट विजेता बने। उन्होंने 29 मई, 1953 को एवरेस्ट की सागरमाथा चोटी पर चढ़ने में सफलता प्राप्त की।
-उन्हें भारत सरकार ने ‘पद्मभूषण’ (1959) देकर सम्मानित किया।
-ब्रिटिश सरकार ने उन्हें ‘जॉर्ज मेडल’ देकर सम्मानित किया।
-1954 में हिमालयन माउंटेनियरिंग इंस्टिट्यूट के वह निदेशक बने।
-1978 में उन्होंने तेनज़िंग नोर्गे एडवेंचर्स नाम की कपंनी ट्रेकिंग के शौकीनों के लिए बनाई।
भारत सरकार ने उन्हें 1959 में ‘पद्मभूषण’ देकर सम्मानित किया था। 1954 में ‘हिमालयन माउन्टेनियरिंग इंस्टिट्यूट की दार्जलिंग (प. बंगाल) में स्थापना की गई और तेनज़िंग नोर्गे को उसमें निदेशक बनाया गया। उनका निक नेम ‘टाइगर ऑफ स्नोज’ रखा गया था। 1978 में उन्होंने ‘तेनज़िंग नोर्गे एडवेन्चर्स’ नाम की कम्पनी बनाई, जो हिमालय में ट्रेकिंग कराती थी। 2003 में उनके पुत्र जैमलिंग तेनज़िंग नोर्गे इस कंपनी को चला रहे थे, जो 1996 में एवरेस्ट विजय प्राप्त कर चुके हैं। तेनज़िंग नोर्गे का 9 मई, 1986 को दार्जिलिंग में निधन हो गया।


Tenzing Norgay GM OSN (/ˈtɛnsɪŋ ˈnɔːrɡeɪ/; Sherpa: བསྟན་འཛིན་ནོར་རྒྱས tendzin norgyé; 29 May 1914 – 9 May 1986), born Namgyal Wangdi and often referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepali Sherpa mountaineer. He was one of the first two individuals known to reach the summit of Mount Everest, which he accomplished with Edmund Hillary on 29 May 1953.[3] Time named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.


There are conflicting accounts of his early life. The account he gave in his autobiography, accepted for several years, is that he was a Sherpa born and raised in Tengboche, Khumbu, in northeastern Nepal.In an interview with All India Radio in 1985, Tenzing Norgay said that his parents came from Tibet, but that he was born in Nepal.According to many later alternate accounts, he was born in Tibet,at Tse Chu in the Kama Valley, and spent his early childhood in Kharta, nearby to the north; Tenzing went to Nepal as a child to work for a Sherpa family in Khumbu.


Khumbu lies near Mount Everest, which the Tibetans and Sherpas call Chomolungma, which in Standard Tibetan means "Holy Mother", or the goddess of the summit. Norgay was a Nepalese Buddhist; Buddhism is the traditional religion of the Sherpas and Tibetans.


His exact date of birth is unknown, but he knew it was in late May by the weather and the crops. After his ascent of Everest on 29 May 1953, he decided to celebrate his birthday on that day thereafter. His year of birth, according to the Tibetan calendar, was the Year of the Rabbit, making it likely that he was born in 1914.


Norgay was originally called "Namgyal Wangdi", but as a child his name was changed on the advice of the head lama and founder of Rongbuk Monastery, Ngawang Tenzin Norbu. "Tenzing Norgay" translates as "wealthy-fortunate-follower-of-religion". His father, a yak herder, was Ghang La Mingma (d. 1949), and his mother was Dokmo Kinzom (who lived to see him climb Everest); he was the 11th of 13 children, most of whom died young.


Tenzing ran away from home twice in his teens, first to Kathmandu and later Darjeeling, India, at that time the starting point for most expeditions in eastern Himalaya. He was once sent to Tengboche Monastery to become a monk, but he decided that was not for him and departed. At the age of 19, he eventually settled in the Sherpa community in Toonsong Busty in Darjeeling.


Norgay received his first opportunity to join an Everest expedition when he was employed by Eric Shipton, leader of the 1935 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition. As a 20-year-old his chance came when two of the others failed their medical tests. As a friend of Ang Tharkay (a Sherpa sirdar who had been on the 1933 British Mount Everest expedition), Norgay was quickly pushed forward, and his attractive smile caught the eye of Shipton, who decided to take him on.


Norgay participated as a high-altitude porter in three official British attempts to climb Everest from the northern Tibetan side in the 1930s.[5] On the 1936 expedition, he worked with John Morris. He also took part in other climbs in various parts of the Indian subcontinent. For a time in the early 1940s Norgay lived in the princely state of Chitral (that later became a part of Pakistan on partition of India) as batman to a Major Chapman. Norgay's first wife died during his tenure there and was buried there. He returned to Darjeeling with his two daughters during the Indian partition of 1947, and managed to cross India by train without a ticket and without being challenged, by wearing one of Major Chapman's old uniforms.


In 1947, Norgay participated in an unsuccessful summit attempt of Everest. Canadian-born Earl Denman, Ange Dawa Sherpa, and Norgay entered Tibet illegally to attempt the mountain; the attempt ended when a strong storm at 22,000 feet (6,700 m) pounded them. Denman admitted defeat, and all three turned around and safely returned.[5] In 1947, Norgay became a sirdar of a Swiss expedition for the first time, following a magnificent performance in the rescue of Sirdar Wangdi Norbu who had fallen and been seriously injured. The expedition reached the main summit of Kedarnath at 22,769 feet (6,940 m) in the western Garhwal Himalaya with Norgay being one of the summit party.


In 1952, he took part in the two Swiss expeditions led by Edouard Wyss-Dunant (spring) and Gabriel Chevalley (autumn), the first serious attempts to climb Everest from the southern (Nepalese) side, after two previous US and British reconnaissance expeditions in 1950 and 1951. Raymond Lambert and Tenzing Norgay were able to reach a height of about 8,595 metres (28,199 ft) on the southeast ridge, setting a new climbing altitude record.[17] The expedition opened up a new route on Everest that was successfully climbed the next year. Norgay and Raymond Lambert reached on 28 May the then-record height of 8,600 metres (28,215 ft),[18] and this expedition, during which Norgay was for the first time considered a full expedition member ("the greatest honour that had ever been paid me") [5] forged a lasting friendship between Norgay and his Swiss friends, in particular Raymond Lambert. During the autumn expedition, the team was stopped by bad weather after reaching an altitude of 8,100 metres (26,575 ft).


Honours
In 1938, after Norgay's third Everest expedition as a porter, the Himalayan Club awarded him its Tiger Medal for high-altitude work.


On 7 June 1953, it was announced that the newly crowned Queen Elizabeth II wished to recognize Norgay's achievements, and on 1 July 10 Downing Street, announced that following consultation with the governments of India and Nepal the Queen had approved awarding him the George Medal.He also received, along with the rest of the Everest party, the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal.


In 1953, King Tribhuvan of Nepal presented him with the Order of the Star of Nepal, 1st Class (Supradipta-Manyabara-Nepal-Tara).


In 1959, the Government of India awarded him the Padma Bhushan, the third-highest civilian award of India.


Norgay also received several other decorations through his career.


In May 2013, Norgay's grandson, Tashi Tenzing, said he believed his grandfather should have been knighted, not just given "a bloody medal".


In September 2013, the Government of Nepal proposed naming a 7,916-foot (2,413 m) mountain in Nepal Tenzing Peak in Norgay's honour.


In July 2015, the highest-known, 3.4-kilometre-high (11,000 ft) mountain range on the dwarf planet Pluto was named Tenzing Montes.