सआदत हसन मंटो -जन्म:(11 मई, 1912)

May 11, 2017

सआदत हसन मंटो (जन्म:11 मई, 1912, समराला, पंजाब; मृत्यु: 18 जनवरी, 1955, लाहौर) कहानीकार और लेखक थे। मंटो फ़िल्म और रेडियो पटकथा लेखक और पत्रकार भी थे।


जीवन-
सआदत हसन मंटो की गिनती ऐसे साहित्यकारों में की जाती है जिनकी कलम ने अपने वक़्त से आगे की ऐसी रचनाएँ लिख डालीं जिनकी गहराई को समझने की दुनिया आज भी कोशिश कर रही है। प्रसिद्ध कहानीकार मंटो का जन्म 11 मई 1912 को पुश्तैनी बैरिस्टरों के परिवार में हुआ था। उनके पिता ग़ुलाम हसन नामी बैरिस्टर और सेशन जज थे। उनकी माता का नाम सरदार बेगम था, और मंटो उन्हें बीबीजान कहते थे। मंटो बचपन से ही बहुत होशियार और शरारती थे। मंटो ने एंट्रेंस इम्तहान दो बार फेल होने के बाद पास किया। इसकी एक वजह उनका उर्दू में कमज़ोर होना था। मंटो का विवाह सफ़िया से हुआ था। जिनसे मंटो की तीन पुत्री हुई। उन्हीं दिनों के आसपास मंटो ने तीन-चार दोस्तों के साथ मिलकर एक ड्रामेटिक क्लब खोला था और आग़ा हश्र का एक नाटक प्रस्तुत करने का इरादा किया था। "यह क्लब सिर्फ़ 15-20 दिन रहा था, इसलिए कि मंटो के पिता ने एक दिन धावा बोलकर हारमोनियम और तबले सब तोड़-फोड़ दिए थे और कह दिया था, कि ऐसे वाहियात काम उन्हें बिल्कुल पसंद नहीं।" मंटो की कहानियों की बीते दशक में जितनी चर्चा हुई है उतनी शायद उर्दू और हिन्दी और शायद दुनिया के दूसरी भाषाओं के कहानीकारों की कम ही हुई है। आंतोन चेखव के बाद मंटो ही थे जिन्होंने अपनी कहानियों के दम पर अपनी जगह बना ली। उन्होंने जीवन में कोई उपन्यास नहीं लिखा। मंटो ने एंट्रेंस तक की पढ़ाई अमृतसर के मुस्लिम हाईस्कूल में की थी। 1931 में उन्होंने हिंदू सभा कॉलेज में दाख़िला लिया। उन दिनों पूरे देश में और ख़ासतौर पर अमृतसर में आज़ादी का आंदोलन पूरे उभार पर था। जलियाँवाला बाग़ का नरसंहार 1919 में हो चुका था जब मंटो की उम्र कुल सात साल की थी, लेकिन उनके बाल मन पर उसकी गहरी छाप थी। 1936 में मंटो का पहला मौलिक उर्दू कहानियों का संग्रह प्रकाशित हुआ, उसका शीर्षक था “आतिशपारे”। अलीगढ़ में मंटो अधिक नहीं ठहर सके और एक साल पूरा होने से पहले ही अमृतसर लौट गये। वहाँ से वह लाहौर चले गये, जहाँ उन्होंने कुछ दिन “पारस” नाम के एक अख़बार में काम किया और कुछ दिन के लिए “मुसव्विर” नामक साप्ताहिक का संपादन किया। जनवरी, 1941 में दिल्ली आकर ऑल इंडिया रेडियो में काम करना शुरू किया। दिल्ली में मंटो सिर्फ़ 17 महीने रहे, लेकिन यह सफर उनकी रचनात्मकता का स्वर्णकाल था। यहाँ उनके रेडियो-नाटकों के चार संग्रह प्रकाशित हुए 'आओ', 'मंटो के ड्रामे', 'जनाज़े' तथा 'तीन औरतें'। उसके विवादास्पद 'धुआँ' और समसामियक विषयों पर लिखे गए लेखों का संग्रह 'मंटो के मज़ामीन' भी दिल्ली-प्रवास के दौरान ही प्रकाशित हुआ। मंटो जुलाई, 1942 में लाहौर को अलविदा कहकर बंबई पहुँच गये। जनवरी, 1948 तक बंबई में रहे और कुछ पत्रिकाओं का संपादन तथा फ़िल्मों के लिए लेखन का कार्य किया।


डाक टिकट-1948 के बाद मंटो पाकिस्तान चले गए। पाकिस्तान में उनके 14 कहानी संग्रह प्रकाशित हुए जिनमें 161 कहानियाँ संग्रहित हैं। इन कहानियों में सियाह हाशिए, नंगी आवाज़ें, लाइसेंस, खोल दो, टेटवाल का कुत्ता, मम्मी, टोबा टेक सिंह, फुंदने, बिजली पहलवान, बू, ठंडा गोश्त, काली शलवार और हतक जैसी चर्चित कहानियाँ शामिल हैं। जिनमें कहानी बू, काली शलवार, ऊपर-नीचे, दरमियाँ, ठंडा गोश्त, धुआँ पर लंबे मुक़दमे चले। हालाँकि इन मुक़दमों से मंटो मानसिक रूप से परेशान ज़रूर हुए लेकिन उनके तेवर ज्यों के त्यों थे। मंटो के 19 साल के साहित्यिक जीवन से 230 कहानियाँ, 67 रेडियो नाटक, 22 शब्द चित्र और 70 लेख मिले। तमाम ज़िल्लतें और परेशानियाँ उठाने के बाद 18 जनवरी, 1955 में मंटो ने अपने उन्हीं तेवरों के साथ, इस दुनिया को अलविदा कह दिया.


Saadat Hasan Manto ( 11 May 1912 – 18 January 1955) was a Pakistani writer, playwright and author born in British India. Writing mainly in Urdu language, he produced 22 collections of short stories, a novel, five series of radio plays, three collections of essays, two collections of personal sketches. His best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics.Manto was known to write about the atrocious truths that no one dared to talk about. Manto is best known for his stories about the partition of the subcontinent immediately following independence in 1947.


Manto was tried for obscenity six times; thrice before 1947 in British India, and thrice after independence in 1947 in Pakistan, but never convicted.


Manto chronicled the chaos that prevailed, during and after the Partition of India in 1947. He started his literary career translating the works of Victor Hugo, Oscar Wilde and Russian writers such as Chekhov and Gorky. His first story was "Tamasha", based on the Jallianwala Bagh massacre at Amritsar. Though his earlier works, influenced by the progressive writers of his times, showed a marked leftist and socialist leanings, his later work progressively became stark in portraying the darkness of the human psyche, as humanist values progressively declined around the Partition. His final works, which grew from the social climate and his own financial struggles, reflected an innate sense of human impotency towards darkness and contained a satirism that verged on dark comedy, as seen in his final work, Toba Tek Singh.[9] It not only showed the influence of his own demons, but also that of the collective madness that he saw in the ensuing decade of his life. To add to it, his numerous court cases and societal rebukes deepened his cynical view of society, from which he felt isolated. No part of human existence remained untouched or taboo for him, he sincerely brought out stories of prostitutes and pimps alike, just as he highlighted the subversive sexual slavery of the women of his times. To many contemporary women writers, his language portrayed reality and provided them with the dignity they long deserved.He is still known for his scathing insight into human behaviour as well as revelation of the macabre animalistic nature of an enraged people, that stands out amidst the brevity of his prose.


At least one commentator compares Saadat Hasan Manto to D. H. Lawrence, partly because he wrote about taboos of Indo-Pakistani Society.His concerns on the socio-political issues, from local to global are revealed in his series, Letters to Uncle Sam, and those to Pandit Nehru.[5] On his writing he often commented, "If you find my stories dirty, the society you are living in is dirty. With my stories, I only expose the truth".


Saadat Hassan Manto was born in Paproudi village of Samrala, in the Ludhiana district of the Punjab in a Muslim family of barristers on 11 May 1912 His father was a judge of a local court. He was ethnically a Kashmiri and proud of his Kashmiri roots. In a letter to Pandit Nehru he suggested that being 'beautiful' was the second meaning of being 'Kashmiri'.


The big turning point in his life came in 1933, at age 21, when he met Abdul Bari Alig, a scholar and polemic writer, in Amritsar. Abdul Bari Alig encouraged him to find his true talents and read Russian and French authors.


Within a matter of months Manto produced an Urdu translation of Victor Hugo's The Last Day of a Condemned Man, which was published by Urdu Book Stall, Lahore as Sarguzasht-e-Aseer (A Prisoner's Story). Soon afterwards he joined the editorial staff of Masawat, a daily published from Ludhiana


This heightened enthusiasm pushed Manto to pursue graduation at Aligarh Muslim University, which he joined in February 1934, and soon got associated with Indian Progressive Writers' Association (IPWA). It was here that he met writer Ali Sardar Jafri and found a new spurt in his writing. His second story, "Inqlaab Pasand", was published in Aligarh magazine in March 1935.


“ "A writer picks up his pen only when his sensibility is hurt."
-- Manto to a court judge ”
Saadat Hasan Manto had accepted the job of writing for Urdu Service of All India Radio in 1941. This proved to be his most productive period as in the next eighteen months he published over four collections of radio plays, Aao (Come), Manto ke Drame (Manto's Dramas), Janaze (Funerals) and Teen Auraten (Three women). He continued to write short stories and his next short story collection Dhuan (Smoke) was soon out followed by Manto ke Afsane and his first collection of topical essays, Manto ke Mazamin. This period culminated with the publication of his mixed collection Afsane aur Dramey in 1943. Meanwhile, due to a quarrel with the director of the All India Radio, poet N. M. Rashid, he left his job and returned to Bombay in July 1942 and again started working with film industry. He entered his best phase in screenwriting giving films like Aatth Din, Shikari, Chal Chal Re Naujawan and Mirza Ghalib, which was finally released in 1954.[23] Some of his short stories also came from this phase including Kaali Shalwar (1941), Dhuan (1941) and Bu (1945), which was published in Qaumi Jang (Bombay) in February 1945. Another highlight of his second phase in Bombay was the publication of a collection of his stories, Chugad, which also included the story 'Babu Gopinath'.He stayed in Bombay until he moved to Pakistan in January 1948 after the partition of India in 1947.


When Manto arrived in Lahore from Bombay, he lived near and associated with several prominent intellectuals including Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Nasir Kazmi, Ahmad Rahi and Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi.They all used to gather at Lahore's iconic Pak Tea House, witness to some of the most fiery literary debates and passionate political arguments back in 1948–49. Pak Tea House holds a special place in the memories of those who know about Lahore's vibrant literary and cultural past. "There was absolutely no external influence and people would share their opinions on any subject without fear even during the military dictators' regimes.


On 18 January 2005, the fiftieth anniversary of his death, Manto was commemorated on a Pakistani postage stamp.[26]


On 14 August 2012 which is Pakistan's Independence Day, Saadat Hasan Manto was posthumously awarded the Nishan-e-Imtiaz award (Distinguished Service to Pakistan Award) by the Government of Pakistan.


Manto was a writer whose life story became a subject of intense discussion and introspection.[28] During the last two decades many stage productions were done to present his character in conflict with the harsh socio-economic realities of post partition era. Danish Iqbal's stage Play Ek Kutte Ki Kahani presented Manto in a new perspective on occasion of his birth centenary. In 2015, film director Sarmad Sultan Khoosat made and released a movie, Manto, about his life.


In 2018, the British Broadcasting Corporation named the work among the 100 stories that shaped the world, alongside works by authors like Homer and Virginia Woolf. 


Manto, starring Nawazuddin Siddiqui, is an upcoming Bollywood film based on the life of Manto.


Bibliography
Atish Paray (Nuggets of Fire) – 1936 آتش پارے
Chugad چُغد
Manto Ke Afsanay (Stories of Manto) – 1940 منٹو کے افسانے
Dhuan (Smoke) – 1941 دُھواں
Afsane Aur Dramay (Fiction and Drama) – 1943 افسانے اور ڈرامے
Lazzat-e-Sang-1948 (The Taste of Rock) لذتِ سنگ
Siyah Hashiye-1948 (Black Borders) سیاہ حاشیہ
Badshahat Ka Khatimah (The End of Kingship) – 1950 بادشاہت کا خاتمہ
Khali Botlein (Empty Bottles) – 1950 خالی بوتلیں
Loud Speaker (Sketches) لاؤڈ سپیکر
Ganjey Farishtey (Sketches) گنجے فرشتے
Manto ke Mazameen منٹو کے مضا مین
Nimrud Ki Khudai (Nimrod The God) – 1950 نمرود کی خُدائی
Thanda Gosht (Cold Meat) – 1950 ٹھنڈا گوشت
Yazid – 1951 یزید
Pardey Ke Peechhey (Behind The Curtains) – 1953 پردے کے پیچھے
Sarak Ke Kinarey (By the Roadside) – 1953 سڑک کے کنارے
Baghair Unwan Ke (Without a Title) – 1954 بغیر عنوان کے
Baghair Ijazit (Without Permission) – 1955 بغیر اجازت
Tobha Tek Singh( "powerful satire") – 1955 ٹوبہ ٹیک سنگھ
Burquey – 1955 بُرقعے
Phunduney (Tassles) – 1955 پھندنے
Sarkandon Ke Peechhey (Behind The Reeds) – 1955 سرکنڈوں کے پیچھے
Shaiytan (Satan) – 1955 شیطان
Shikari Auratein (Women of Prey) – 1955 شکاری عورتیں
Ratti, Masha, Tolah-1956 رتی ماشہ تولہ
Kaali Shalwar (Black Pants) – 1961 کالی شلوار
Manto Ki Behtareen Kahanian (Best Stories of Manto) – 1963 منٹو کی بہترین کہانیاں [1]
Tahira Se Tahir (From Tahira to Tahir) – 1971 طاہرہ سے طاہر


Further reading
Manto Naama, by Jagdish Chander Wadhawan.1998, Roli Books.
Manto Naama: The Life of Saadat Hasan Manto, English translation of the above by Jai Ratan, 1998, Roli Books.
Life and Works of Saadat Hasan Manto, by Alok Bhalla. 1997, Indian Institute of Advanced Study. ISBN 81-85952-48-5.
The Life and Works of Saadat Hasan Manto. Introduction by Leslie Flemming; trans. by Tahira Naqvi. Lahore, Pakistan: Vanguard Books Ltd., 1985.
Another Lonely Voice: The Urdu Short Stories of Saadat Hasan Manto, by Leslie A. Flemming, Berkeley: Centre for South and South east Asian Studies. University of California. 1979. [2]
Madness and Partition: The Short Stories of Saadat Hasan Manto, Stephen Alter, Journal of Comparative Poetics, No. 14, Madness and Civilization/ al-Junun wa al-Hadarah (1994), pp. 91–100. [3]
Bitter Fruit: The Very Best of Saadat Hassan Manto, edited and tr. by Khalid Hassan, Penguin, 2008.
Naked Voices: Stories and Sketches by Manto, Ed. and tr. by Rakhshanda Jalil. Indian Ink & Roli Books, 2008.
Stars from Another Sky: The Bombay Film World of the 1940s, tr. by Khalid Hasan. Penguin India, 2000.
Manto: Selected Stories, tr. by Aatish Taseer. Vintage/Random House India, 2008. ISBN 81-84001-44-4.
The Pity of Partition: Manto’s Life, Times, and Work across the India-Pakistan Divide. Ayesha Jalal.
Pinglay-Plumber, Prachi (12 January 2015). "Manto Bridge : to Manto, Bombay was about its people". Outlook. 55 (1): 72–73. Retrieved 2016-01-06.



Manto's works online
Stories of Saadat Hasan Manto
Short stories of Saadat Hasan Manto
Toba Tek Singh. Translated by Frances W. Pritchett.
'Toba Tek Singh' in Hindi [4]
'Thanda Gosht' (Cold Meat) in English
A collection of short stories in Hindi
'Mera Sahib' – Manto's writing about Muhammad Ali Jinnah
'First Letter to Uncle Sam'
'Second Letter to Uncle Sam'
'Third Letter to Uncle Sam'
'A Dog of Tithwal' in English