जे. कृष्णमूर्ति -जन्म: (11 मई, 1895)

May 11, 2017

जे. कृष्णमूर्ति (पूरा नाम: 'जिद्दू कृष्णमूर्ति', जन्म: 11 मई, 1895 - मृत्यु: 17 फ़रवरी, 1986) एक विश्व प्रसिद्ध दार्शनिक तथा आध्यात्मिक विषयों के बड़े ही कुशल एवं परिपक्व लेखक थे। इन्हें प्रवचनकर्ता के रूप में भी ख्याति प्राप्त थी। जे. कृष्णमूर्ति मानसिक क्रान्ति, बुद्धि की प्रकृति, ध्यान और समाज में सकारात्मक परिवर्तन किस प्रकार लाया जा सकता है, इन विषयों आदि के बहुत ही गहरे विशेषज्ञ थे। अपनी मसीहाई छवि को दृढ़तापूर्वक अस्वीकृत करते हुए कृष्णमूर्ति ने एक बड़े और समृद्ध संगठन को भंग कर दिया, जो उन्हीं को केंद्र में रखकर निर्मित किया गया था; उन्होंने स्पष्ट शब्दों में कहा कि सत्य एक ‘मार्गरहित भूमि’ है और उस तक किसी भी औपचारिक धर्म, दर्शन अथवा संप्रदाय के माध्यम से नहीं पहुंचा जा सकता।


जीवन-
जे. कृष्णमूर्ति का जन्म तमिलनाडु के एक छोटे-से नगर में निर्धन ब्राह्मण परिवार में 12 मई, 1895 को हुआ था। अपने माता-पिता की आठवीं संतान के रूप में उनका जन्म हुआ था इसीलिए उनका नाम कृष्णमूर्ति रखा गया। कृष्ण भी वासुदेव की आठवीं संतान थे। इनके पिता 'जिद्दू नारायनिया' ब्रिटिश प्रशासन में सरकारी कर्मचारी थे। जब कृष्णमूर्ति केवल दस साल के ही थे, तभी इनकी माता 'संजीवामा' का निधन हो गया। बचपन से ही इनमें कुछ असाधारणता थी। थियोसोफ़िकल सोसाइटी के सदस्य पहले ही किसी विश्वगुरु के आगमन की भविष्यवाणी कर चुके थे। श्रीमती एनी बेसेंट और थियोसोफ़िकल सोसाइटी के प्रमुखों को जे. कृष्णमूर्ति में वह विशिष्ट लक्षण दिखाई दिये, जो कि एक विश्वगुरु में होते हैं। एनी बेसेंट ने जे. कृष्णमूर्ति की किशोरावस्था में ही उन्हें गोद ले लिया और उनकी परवरिश पूर्णतया धर्म और आध्यात्म से ओत-प्रोत वातावरण में हुई। थियोसोफ़िकल सोसाइटी के प्रमुख को लगा कि जे. कृष्णमूर्ति जैसे व्यक्तित्व का धनी ही विश्व का शिक्षक बन सकता है। एनी बेसेंट ने भी इस विचार का समर्थन किया और जिद्दू कृष्णमूर्ति को वे अपने छोटे भाई की तरह मानने लगीं। 1912 में उन्हें शिक्षा के लिए इंग्लैंड भेजा गया और 1921 तक वे वहाँ रहे। इसके बाद विभिन्न देशों में थियोसोफ़िकल पर भाषण देने का क्रम चलता रहा। जे. कृष्णमूर्ति ने सदैव ही इस बात पर बल दिया था कि प्रत्येक मनुष्य को मानसिक क्रान्ति की आवश्यकता है और उनका यह भी मत था कि इस तरह की क्रान्ति किन्हीं बाह्य कारक से सम्भव नहीं है। चाहे वह धार्मिक, राजनीतिक या सामाजिक किसी भी प्रकार की हो।
रचनाएँ-
अपने कार्य के बारे में उन्होंने कहा ”यहां किसी विश्वास की कोई मांग या अपेक्षा नहीं है, यहां अनुयायी नहीं है, पंथ संप्रदाय नहीं है, व किसी भी दिशा में उन्मुख करने के लिए किसी तरह का फुसलाना प्रेरित करना नहीं है, और इसलिए हम एक ही तल पर, एक ही आधार पर और एक ही स्तर पर मिल पाते हैं, क्योंकि तभी हम सब एक साथ मिलकर मानव जीवन के अद्भुत घटनाक्रम का अवलोकन कर सकते हैं। उनके साहित्य में सार्वजनिक वार्ताएं, प्रश्नोत्तर, परिचर्चाएं, साक्षात्कार, परस्पर संवाद, डायरी और उनका खुद का लेखन शामिल है जो कि अब तक 75 से अधिक पुस्तकों और 700 से अधिक ऑडियो और 1200 से अधिक वीडियो कैसेट्स सीडी के रूप में उपलब्ध है। उनका मूल साहित्य अंग्रेज़ी भाषा में है, जिसका कई मुख्य प्रचलित भाषाओं में अनुवाद किया गया है। वार्ताएं, प्रश्नोत्तर, परिचर्चाएं, साक्षात्कार, परस्पर संवाद, प्रवचनों के ऑडियो और वीडियो टेप भी उपलब्ध हैं। ”
जिद्दू कृष्णमूर्ति की इस नई विचारधारा की ओर समाज का बौद्धिक वर्ग आकृष्ट हुआ और लोग पथ-प्रदर्शन के लिए उनके पास आने लगे थे। उन्होंने अपने जीवन काल में अनेक शिक्षा संस्थाओं की स्थापना की, जिनमें दक्षिण भारत का 'ऋषिवैली' स्कूल विशेष उल्लेखनीय है। भारत के इस महान व्यक्तित्व की 91 वर्ष की आयु में 17 फ़रवरी, 1986 ई. में मृत्यु हो गई। कृष्णमूर्ति ने बड़ी ही फुर्ती और जीवटता से लगातार दुनिया के अनेकों भागों में भ्रमण किया और लोगों को शिक्षा दी और लोगों से शिक्षा ली। उन्होंने पूरा जीवन एक शिक्षक और छात्र की तरह बिताया। मनुष्य के सर्व प्रथम मनुष्य होने से ही मुक्ति की शुरुआत होती है। किंतु आज का मानव हिंदू, बौद्ध, ईसाई, मुसलमान, अमेरिकी, अरबी या चाइनी है। उन्होंने कहा था कि संसार विनाश की राह पर आ चुका है और इसका हल तथाकथित धार्मिकों और राजनीतिज्ञों के पास नहीं है।


Jiddu Krishnamurti (11 May 1895 – 17 February 1986) was a philosopher, speaker and writer. In his early life he was groomed to be the new World Teacher but later rejected this mantle and withdrew from the Theosophy organization behind it. His subject matter included psychological revolution, the nature of mind, meditation, inquiry, human relationships, and bringing about radical change in society. He constantly stressed the need for a revolution in the psyche of every human being and emphasised that such revolution cannot be brought about by any external entity, be it religious, political, or social.


Krishnamurti was born in India. In early adolescence he had a chance encounter with prominent occultist and theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater in the grounds of the Theosophical Society headquarters at Adyar in Madras. He was subsequently raised under the tutelage of Annie Besant and Leadbeater, leaders of the Society at the time, who believed him to be a 'vehicle' for an expected World Teacher. As a young man, he disavowed this idea and dissolved the Order of the Star in the East, an organisation that had been established to support it.


Krishnamurti said he had no allegiance to any nationality, caste, religion, or philosophy, and spent the rest of his life travelling the world, speaking to large and small groups and individuals. He wrote many books, among them The First and Last Freedom, The Only Revolution, and Krishnamurti's Notebook. Many of his talks and discussions have been published. His last public talk was in Madras, India, in January 1986, a month before his death at his home in Ojai, California. His supporters — working through non-profit foundations in India, Great Britain and the United States — oversee several independent schools based on his views on education. They continue to transcribe and distribute his thousands of talks, group and individual discussions, and writings by use of a variety of media formats and languages.


Krishnamurti was unrelated to his contemporary U. G. Krishnamurti (1918-2007), although the two men had a number of meetings.


The date of birth of Jiddu Krishnamurti is a matter of dispute. Mary Lutyens determines it to be 12 May 1895 but Christine Williams notes the unreliability of birth registrations in that period and that statements claiming dates ranging from 4 May 1895 to 25 May 1896 exist. She uses calculations based on a published horoscope to derive a date of 11 May 1895 but "retains a measure of scepticism" about it. His birthplace was the small town of Madanapalle in Madras Presidency (modern-day Chittoor District in Andhra Pradesh). He was born in Telugu speaking family. His father, Jiddu Narayaniah, was employed as an official of the British colonial administration. Krishnamurti was fond of his mother Sanjeevamma, who died when he was ten. His parents had a total of eleven children, of whom six survived childhood.


In 1903 the family settled in Cudappah, where Krishnamurti had contracted malaria during a previous stay. He would suffer recurrent bouts of the disease over many years.A sensitive and sickly child, "vague and dreamy", he was often taken to be intellectually disabled, and was beaten regularly at school by his teachers and at home by his father.In memoirs written when he was eighteen years old Krishnamurti described psychic experiences, such as seeing his sister, who had died in 1904, and his late mother. During his childhood he developed a bond with nature that was to stay with him for the rest of his life.


Krishnamurti's father retired at the end of 1907. Being of limited means he sought employment at the headquarters of the Theosophical Society at Adyar. In addition to being a Brahmin, Narayaniah had been a theosophist since 1882. He was eventually hired by the Society as a clerk, moving there with his family in January 1909.Narayaniah and his sons were at first assigned to live in a small cottage which was located just outside the society's compound.


In April 1909 Krishnamurti first met Charles Webster Leadbeater, who claimed clairvoyance. Leadbeater had noticed Krishnamurti on the Society's beach on the Adyar river, and was amazed by the "most wonderful aura he had ever seen, without a particle of selfishness in it." Ernest Wood, an adjutant of Leadbeaters at the time, who helped Krishnamurti with his homework, considered him to be "particularly dim-witted". Leadbeater was convinced that the boy would become a spiritual teacher and a great orator; the likely "vehicle for the Lord Maitreya" in Theosophical doctrine, an advanced spiritual entity periodically appearing on Earth as a World Teacher to guide the evolution of humankind.


In her biography of Krishnamurti Pupul Jayakar quotes him speaking of that period in his life some 75 years later: "The boy had always said "I will do whatever you want". There was an element of subservience, obedience. The boy was vague, uncertain, woolly; he didn't seem to care what was happening. He was like a vessel with a large hole in it, whatever was put in, went through, nothing remained."


Following his discovery by Leadbeater, Krishnamurti was nurtured by the Theosophical Society in Adyar. Leadbeater and a small number of trusted associates undertook the task of educating, protecting, and generally preparing Krishnamurti as the "vehicle" of the expected World Teacher. Krishnamurti (often later called Krishnaji) and his younger brother Nityananda (Nitya) were privately tutored at the Theosophical compound in Madras, and later exposed to a comparatively opulent life among a segment of European high society as they continued their education abroad. Despite his history of problems with schoolwork and concerns about his capacities and physical condition, the 14-year-old Krishnamurti was able to speak and write competently in English within six months.[16] Lutyens says that later in life Krishnamurti came to view his "discovery" as a life-saving event. When he was asked in later life what he thought would have happened to him if he had not been 'discovered' by Leadbeater he would unhesitatingly reply "I would have died".


During this time Krishnamurti had developed a strong bond with Annie Besant and came to view her as a surrogate mother. His father, who had initially assented to Besant's legal guardianship of Krishnamurti,[18] was pushed into the background by the swirl of attention around his son. In 1912 he sued Besant to annul the guardianship agreement. After a protracted legal battle Besant took custody of Krishnamurti and Nitya.[19] As a result of this separation from family and home Krishnamurti and his brother (whose relationship had always been very close) became more dependent on each other, and in the following years often travelled together.


In 1911 the Theosophical Society established the Order of the Star in the East (OSE) to prepare the world for the expected appearance of the World Teacher. Krishnamurti was named as its head, with senior Theosophists assigned various other positions. Membership was open to anybody who accepted the doctrine of the Coming of the World Teacher. Controversy soon erupted, both within the Theosophical Society and outside it, in Hindu circles and the Indian press.


Mary Lutyens, a biographer and friend of Krishnamurti, says that there was a time when he believed that he was to become the World Teacher after correct spiritual and secular guidance and education. Another biographer describes the daily program imposed on him by Leadbeater and his associates, which included rigorous exercise and sports, tutoring in a variety of school subjects, Theosophical and religious lessons, yoga and meditation, as well as instruction in proper hygiene and in the ways of British society and culture. At the same time Leadbeater assumed the role of guide in a parallel mystical instruction of Krishnamurti; the existence and progress of this instruction was at the time known only to a select few.


While he showed a natural aptitude in sports, Krishnamurti always had problems with formal schooling and was not academically inclined. He eventually gave up university education after several attempts at admission. He did take to foreign languages, in time speaking several with some fluency.


His public image, cultivated by the Theosophists, "was to be characterized by a well-polished exterior, a sobriety of purpose, a cosmopolitan outlook and an otherworldly, almost beatific detachment in his demeanor."Demonstrably, "all of these can be said to have characterized Krishnamurti's public image to the end of his life." It was apparently clear early on that he "possessed an innate personal magnetism, not of a warm physical variety, but nonetheless emotive in its austerity, and inclined to inspire veneration."However, as he was growing up, Krishnamurti showed signs of adolescent rebellion and emotional instability, chafing at the regimen imposed on him, visibly uncomfortable with the publicity surrounding him, and occasionally expressing doubts about the future prescribed for him.


Krishnamurti and Nitya were taken to England in April 1911. During this trip Krishnamurti gave his first public speech, to members of the OSE in London. His first writings had also started to appear, published in booklets by the Theosophical Society and in Theosophical and OSE-affiliated magazines.Between 1911 and the start of World War I in 1914, the brothers visited several other European countries, always accompanied by Theosophist chaperones. Meanwhile, Krishnamurti had for the first time acquired a measure of personal financial independence, thanks to a wealthy benefactress, American Mary Melissa Hoadley Dodge, who was domiciled in England.


After the war Krishnamurti embarked on a series of lectures, meetings and discussions around the world related to his duties as the Head of the OSE, accompanied by Nitya, by then the Organizing Secretary of the Order.[32] Krishnamurti also continued writing.[33] The content of his talks and writings, revolved around the work of the Order and of its members in preparation for the Coming. He was described, initially, as a halting, hesitant, and repetitive speaker, but his delivery and confidence improved, and he gradually took command of the meetings.


In 1921 Krishnamurti fell in love with Helen Knothe, a 17-year-old American whose family associated with the Theosophists. The experience was tempered by the realisation that his work and expected life-mission precluded what would otherwise be considered normal relationships and by the mid-1920s the two of them had drifted apart.


Krishnamurti attracted the interest of the mainstream religious establishment in India. He engaged in discussions with several well known Hindu and Buddhist scholars and leaders, including the Dalai Lama. Several of these discussions were later published as chapters in various Krishnamurti books. Those influenced by Krishnamurti include Toni Packer, Achyut Patwardhan,[92]Dada Dharmadhikari. and Bruce Lee.


Interest in Krishnamurti and his work has persisted in the years since his death. Many books, audio, video, and computer materials, remain in print and are carried by major online and traditional retailers. The four official Foundations continue to maintain archives, disseminate the teachings in an increasing number of languages, convert print to digital and other media, develop websites, sponsor television programs, and organise meetings and dialogues of interested persons around the world.