मृणाल सेन -जन्म: (14 मई, 1923)

May 14, 2017

मृणाल सेन ( जन्म: 14 मई, 1923, फरीदपुर, अब बांग्लादेश में) भारतीय फ़िल्मों के प्रसिद्ध निर्माता व निर्देशक हैं। इनकी अधिकतर फ़िल्में बांग्ला भाषा में हैं। बंगाली, उड़िया, तेलुगु और हिंदी फ़िल्मों में समान रूप से सक्रिय रहे मृणाल सेन भारत में समानांतार सिनेमा आंदोलन के अग्रणी माने जाते हैं।


 परिचय-
अपने समय के सक्रिय वामपंथी रहे मृणाल सेन का जन्म पूर्वी बंगाल (अब बांग्लादेश) के फरीदपुर में 14 मई, 1923 को हुआ। कलकत्ता से भौतिकशास्त्र में पढ़ाई पूरी करने के बाद उन्होंने मेडिकल रिप्रेंजेंटेटिव, पत्रकारिता और साउंड रिकॉर्डिंग सरीखे कई काम किये। फ़िल्मों में जीवन के यथार्थ को रचने से जुड़े और पढने के शौकीन मृणाल सेन ने फ़िल्मों के बारे में गहराई से अध्ययन किया और सिनेमा पर कई पुस्तकें भी प्रकाशित कीं, जिनमें शामिल हैं- ‘न्यूज ऑन सिनेमा’ (1977) तथा ‘सिनेमा, आधुनिकता’ (1992)।
मृणाल सेन ने फ़िल्मों में निर्देशन की शुरुआत 1956 में बंगाली फ़िल्म ‘रात भोरे’ से की। 1958 में उनकी दूसरी सफल फ़िल्म ‘नील आकाशेर नीचे’ आई। इस महत्वाकांक्षी फ़िल्म में उन्होंने 'भारतीय स्वतंत्रता आन्दोलन' में चीनियों के जापानी साम्राज्यवाद के विरुद्ध संघर्ष से की। 1960 की उनकी फ़िल्म ‘बाइशे श्रावण,’ जो कि 1943 में बंगाल में आये भयंकर अकाल पर आधारित थी और ‘आकाश कुसुम’ (1965) ने एक महान निर्देशक के रूप में मृणाल सेन की छवि को विस्तार दिया। मृणाल की अन्य सफल बंगाली फ़िल्में रहीं- ‘इंटरव्यू’ (1970), ‘कलकत्ता ‘71’ (1972) और ‘पदातिक’ (1973), जिन्हें ‘कलकत्ता ट्रायोलॉजी’ कहा जाता है।


योगदान- बंगाली फ़िल्मों की तरह ही मृणाल सेन हिन्दी फ़िल्मों में भी समान रूप से सक्रिय दिखते हैं। इनकी पहली हिन्दी फ़िल्म 1969 की कम बजट वाली फ़िल्म ‘भुवन शोम’ थी। फ़िल्म एक अडियल रईसजादे की पिछड़ी हुई ग्रामीण महिला द्वारा सुधार की हास्य-कथा है। साथ ही, यह फ़िल्म वर्ग-संघर्ष और सामाजिक बाधाओं की कहानी भी प्रस्तुत करती है। फ़िल्म की संकीर्णता से परे नये स्टाइल का दृश्य चयन और संपादन भारत में समानांतर सिनेमा के उद्भव पर गहरा प्रभाव छोड़ता है।


सम्मान -
मृणाल सेन को भारत सरकार द्वारा 1981 में कला के क्षेत्र में 'पद्म भूषण' से सम्मानित किया गया था। इसके अतिरिक्त 2005 में 'दादा साहब फाल्के पुरस्कार भी प्रदान किया। उनको 1998 से 2000 तक मानक संसद सदस्यता भी मिली। फ़िल्मों के सृजन संसार को आजीवन समर्पित मृणाल सेन ने कई सम्मान और पुरस्कार बटोरे, जिनमें सर्वश्रेष्ठ फ़िल्म का 'राष्ट्रीय पुरस्कार' भी शामिल है, जो उन्हें चार बार मिला। अंतर्राष्ट्रीय फ़िल्म समारोहों में भी इन्हें कई पुरस्कार मिले। इनमें फ़िल्म ‘खारिज’ के लिए कान्स में ‘द प्रिक्स ड्यू ज्यूरी’ सम्मान शामिल है। 2004 में मृणाल सेन ने अपनी आत्मकथा 'आलवेज बिंग बोर्न' पूरा किया। 2008 में उन्हें 'ओसियन सिने फैन फेस्टिवल' और 'इंटर नेसनल फ़िल्म फेस्टिवल' द्वारा 'लाइफ़ टाइम अचिएवेमेंट' सम्मान से सम्मानित किया गया।


Mrinal Sen (also spelled Mrinal Shen, born 14 May 1923) is a noted Bengali filmmaker based in Kolkata. Along with his contemporaries Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghatak, he is often considered to be one of the greatest ambassadors of Bengali parallel cinema on the global stage. Like the works of Ray and Ghatak, his cinema is known for its artistic depiction of social reality. Although the three directors shared a healthy rivalry, they were ardent admirers of each other's work, and in so doing, they charted the independent trajectory of parallel cinema, as a counterpoint to the mainstream fare of Hindi cinema in India. Mrinal Sen is an ardent follower of Marxist philosophy.


Sen was born on 14 May 1923, in the town of Faridpur, now in Bangladesh in a Hindu family. After finishing high school there, he left home to come to Calcutta as a student. He studied physics at the well-known Scottish Church College, and subsequently earned a postgraduate degree at the University of Calcutta. As a student, he got involved with the cultural wing of the Communist Party of India. Although he never became a member of the party, his association with the socialist Indian People's Theatre Association brought him close to a number of like-minded culturally associated people.


Early interest in cinema Sen's interest in films started after he stumbled upon a book on film aesthetics. However, his interest remained mostly intellectual, and he was forced to take up the job of a medical representative, which took him away from Calcutta. This did not last very long, and he came back to the city and eventually took a job as an audio technician in a Calcutta film studio, which launched his film career.


Mrinal Sen made his first feature film, Raat Bhore, in 1955. It had the iconic Uttam Kumar who was not a star then. The movie was a let-down. His next film, Neel Akasher Neechey (Under the Blue Sky), earned him local recognition, while his third film, Baishey Shravan (the day when Rabindranath Tagore died), was his first film that gave him international exposure.


During this period, he won a large number of international awards. It could be argued that although his films show the development of ideas from existentialism, surrealism, Marxism, German expressionism, Postmodernism, Nouvelle Vague and Italian neorealism. Sen's cinema for the most part does not provide a happy ending or a definitive conclusion (unlike many of the films of Sen's better known contemporary Satyajit Ray). In many of Sen's later films, the audience becomes a participant in the process of the development of the plot. The director invites and provokes the audience into a shared process of forming multiple conclusions, that are at the same time unique and different. The director does not play the role of god, his audience does. It is not really surprising that unlike Allen who has a steady niche audience in the Western literati and aficionados, Sen's experimentation with parallel cinema had significantly cost him much of a devoted audience composing of largely the Calcutta-based westernized intelligentsia.


In 1982 he was a member of the jury at the 32nd Berlin International Film Festival.In 1983 he was a member of the jury at the 13th Moscow International Film Festival.In 1997 he was a member of the jury at the 20th Moscow International Film Festival.


Mrinal Sen never stopped experimenting with his medium. In his later films he tried to move away from the narrative structure and worked with very thin story lines. After a long gap of eight years, at the age of eighty, he made his latest film, Aamaar Bhuvan, in 2002.


During his career, Mrinal Sen's films have received awards from almost all major film festivals, including Cannes, Berlin, Venice, Moscow, Karlovy Vary, Montreal, Chicago, and Cairo. Retrospectives of his films have been shown in almost all major cities of the world. He was also elected as the president of the International Federation of the Film Societies. He received the Taj Enlighten Tareef Award which is given for a lifetime contribution to the world of cinema in 2008. He also received the Lifetime Achievement Award at the 10th edition of the Osian's Cinefest Film Festival 2008.


On July 24, 2012, Mrinal Sen was not invited to the function organised by West Bengal government to felicitate film personalities from the State. As per reports, his political views are believed to be the reason for his omission from the function.


Awards
National awards
National Film Award for Best Feature Film


1969: Bhuvan Shome
1974: Chorus
1976: Mrigayaa
1980: Akaler Sandhane
National Film Award for Second Best Feature Film


1972: Calcutta 71
1980: Kharij
National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali


1961: Punascha
1965: Akash Kusum
1993: Antareen
National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Telugu


1977: Oka Oori Katha
National Film Award – Special Mention (feature film)


1978: Parashuram
National Film Award for Best Direction


1969: Bhuvan Shome
1979: Ek Din Pratidin
1980: Akaler Sandhane
1984: Khandhar
National Film Award for Best Screenplay


1974: Padatik
1983: Akaler Sandhane
1984: Kharij
Filmfare Awards
Critics Award for Best Film
1976 Mrigayaa
Best Screenplay
1984 Khandhar
Best Director - Bengali
1982 Akaler Shandhaney
Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award
2017 Bengali Cinema


International awards
Moscow International Film Festival - Silver Prize
1975 Chorus
1979 Parashuram 
Karlovy Vary International Film Festival - Special Jury Prize
1977 Oka Oori Katha
Berlin International Film Festival
Interfilm Award
1979 Parashuram
1981 Akaler Sandhane
Grand Jury Prize
1981 Akaler Sandhane
Cannes Film Festival - Jury Prize
1983 Kharij
Valladolid International Film Festival - Golden Spike
1983 Kharij
Chicago International Film Festival - Gold Hugo
1984 Khandhar
Montreal World Film Festival - Special Prize of the Jury
1984 Khandhar
Venice Film Festival - OCIC Award - Honorable Mention
1989 Ek Din Achanak
Cairo International Film Festival - Silver Pyramid for Best Director
2002 Aamar Bhuban
State and institutional honors
In 1979, he was awarded the Nehru Soviet Land Award by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics for his contribution to world cinema.
In 1981, the Government of India awarded him with the Padma Bhushan.
In 1985, President François Mitterrand, the President of France, awarded him the Commandeur de Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters), the highest civilian honour conferred by that country, in recognition of significant contributions to the arts, literature, or the propagation of these fields.
In 1993, he was awarded an honorary D. Litt. by the University of Burdwan.
In 1996, he was awarded an honorary D. Litt. by Jadavpur University.
In 1999, he was awarded an honorary D. Litt. by Rabindra Bharati University.
Between 1998 and 2003, he was made an Honorary Member of the Indian Parliament in the Rajya Sabha.
In 2000, President Vladimir Putin of the Russian federation honored him with the Order of Friendship.
In 2005, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, the highest honor given to an Indian filmmaker, was awarded to him by the Government of India for the year 2003.
In 2009, he was awarded an honorary D. Litt. by the University of Calcutta.
In 2017, he was inducted as a member of the Oscar Academy