रास बिहारी बोस (जन्म: 25 मई, 1886)
रास बिहारी बोस ( जन्म: 25 मई, 1886 - मृत्यु: 21 जनवरी, 1945) प्रख्यात वकील और शिक्षाविद थे। रास बिहारी बोस प्रख्यात क्रांतिकारी तो थे ही, सर्वप्रथम आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज के निर्माता भी थे। देश के जिन क्रांतिकारियों ने स्वतंत्रता-प्राप्ति तथा स्वतंत्र सरकार का संघटन करने के लिए प्रयत्न किया, उनमें श्री रासबिहारी बोस का नाम प्रमुख है। रास बिहारी बोस कांग्रेस के उदारवादी दल से सम्बद्ध थे। रास बिहारी बोस ने उग्रवादियों को घातक, जनोत्तेजक तथा अनुत्तरदायी आंदोलनकारी कहा। रासबिहारी बोस उन लोगों में से थे जो देश से बाहर जाकर विदेशी राष्ट्रों की सहायता से अंग्रेजों के विरुद्ध वातावरण तैयार कर भारत की मुक्ति का रास्ता निकालने की सोचते रहते थे। 1937 में उन्होंने 'भारतीय स्वातंय संघ' की स्थापना की और सभी भारतीयों का आह्वान किया तथा भारत को स्वतंत्र राष्ट्र घोषित कर दिया।
प्रथम महायुद्ध में सशस्त्र क्रांति की जो योजना बनाई गई थी, वह रासबिहारी बोस के ही नेतृत्व में निर्मित हुई थी। सन् 1912 ई. में वाइसराय लार्ड हार्डिंग पर रासबिहारी बोस ने ही बम फेंका था। तत्कालीन ब्रिटिश सरकार की सारी शक्ति रासबिहारी बोस को पकड़ने में व्यर्थ सिद्ध हुई। सरकारी नौकरी में रहते हुए भी रासबिहारी बोस ने क्रांतिकारी दल का संघटन किया। इसका गठन करने के लिए रासबिहारी बोस को व्यापक रूप से देश का बड़ी ही सतर्कता से भ्रमण करना पड़ता था। रासबिहारी बोस के क्रांतिकारी कार्यों का एक प्रमुख केंद्र वाराणसी रहा है, जहाँ आप गुप्त रूप से रहकर देश के क्रांतिकारी आंदोलन का संचालन किया करते थे। वाराणसी से सिंगापुर तक क्रांतिकारियों का संघटन करने में आपको सफलता मिली थी। क्रांतिकारी कार्यों में आपके प्रमुख सहायक श्री पिंगले थे। 21 फरवरी, सन 1915 ई. का एक साथ सर्वत्र विद्रोह करने की तिथि निश्चित की गई थी किंतु दल के एक व्यक्ति द्वारा भेद बता दिए जाने के कारण योजना सफल न हो सकी। इतना अवश्य कहा जाएगा कि सन 1857 की सशस्त्र क्रांति के बाद ब्रिटिश शासन को समाप्त करने का इतना व्यापक और विशाल क्रांतिकारी संघटन एवं षड्यंत्र नहीं बना था। भेद प्रकट हो जाने के कारण श्री पिंगले को तो फाँसी पर चढ़ना पड़ा किंतु श्री रासबिहारी बोस बच निकले। फिर रासबिहारी बोस ने विदेश जाकर क्रांतिकारी शक्तियों का संघटन कर देश को स्वाधीन करने का प्रयत्न किया।
भारतीय स्वातंत्रय संघ की स्थापना
बड़ी ही कुशलता तथा सतर्कता से आपने ठाकुर परिवार के एक व्यक्ति के पारपत्र के माध्यम से भारत से विदा ली और सन 1915 में जहाज द्वारा जापान रवाना हो गए। जब ब्रिटिश सरकार को विदित हुआ कि श्री रासबिहारी बोस जापान में हैं तो उन्हें सौंपने की माँग की। जापान सरकार ने इस माँग को मान भी लिया था किंतु जापान की अत्यंत शक्तिशाली राष्ट्रवादी संस्था ब्लेड ड्रैगन के अध्यक्ष श्री टोयामा ने श्री बोस को अपने यहाँ आश्रय दिया। इसके बाद किसी जापानी अधिकारी का साहस न था कि श्री बोस को गिरफ्तार कर सके। इस अवस्था में श्री बोस प्राय: आठ वर्षों तक रहे। अनंतर आपने एक जापान महिला से विवाह किया और वहीं रहने लगे। वहीं आपने भारतीय स्वातंत्रय संघ की स्थापना की। रासबिहारी बोस भारत की विभिन्न राष्ट्रीय भाषाओं के अच्छे ज्ञाता थे। इसी कारण इन्हें को देश में क्रांतिकारी संघटन करने में अभूतपूर्व सफलता मिली थी। जापान जाकर भी आपने भारतीय स्वतंत्रता के लिए ऐतिहासिक कार्य किए। यहाँ जापानी भाषा का अध्ययन कर आपने इस भाषा में भारतीय स्वतंत्रता के संबंध में पाँच पुस्तकें लिखीं। इन पुस्तकों का जापान में व्यापक प्रचार प्रसार हुआ। श्री संडरलैंड की 'पराधीन भारत' शीर्षक पुस्तक का आपने जापानी भाषा में अनुवाद किया।
आज़ाद हिंद फ़ौज की स्थापना
भारतीय स्वातंत्रय संघ के संस्थापन के अतिरिक्त आपने ही प्रथम आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज का संघटन किया। इस सेना के प्रधान श्री मोहन सिंह थे। इसी संघटन के आधार पर नेता जी श्री सुभाषाचंद्र बोस ने द्वितीय आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज का संघटन किया। श्री रासबिहारी बोस देश के स्वातंत्रयवीरों में अग्रगण्य हैं। क्रांतिकारी आंदोलन द्वारा भारत को पराधीनता से मुक्त करने के लिए आपने जो पराक्रम दिखाया, वह स्वाधीनता आंदोलन के इतिहास में स्वर्णाक्षरों में अंकित रहेगा
Rash Behari Bose (About this sound pronunciation (help·info); Bengali: রাসবিহারী বসু Rashbihari Boshu; 25 May 1886 – 21 January 1945) was an Indian revolutionary leader against the British Raj and was one of the key organisers of the Ghadar Mutiny and later the Indian National Army. He was born in village Subaldaha, Purba Bardhaman district in West Bengal.
Rash Behari Bose was born in village Subaldaha, Purba Bardhaman district, in West Bengal. His father's name was Binod Behari Bose. Bhubaneswari Devi was his mother. Tinkori Dasi was Rashbehari Bose's foster mother. The major part of the childhood of Rashbehari Bose and Sushila Sarkar was spent in the village Subaldaha. They lived in this village at the house of madam Bidhumukhi. Bidhumukhi was a widow from her early life. Bidhumukhi was the sister in law of Kalicharan Bose. His early education was completed under the supervision of his grandfather Kalicharan Bose at village Pathsala (Presently Subaldaha Rashbehari Bose F.P School) at his birthplace. Rash Behari Bose got an education of Lathi Khela in his child at Subaldaha. He got inspiration of revolutionary movement hearing stories from his grandfather at his birthplace Subaldaha. He was the cynosure of all villagers. His nickname was Rasu. He was stubborn and the villagers loved him very much. It is heard from villagers that he was at Subaldaha till he was 12 or 14 years old. His father, Binod Behari Bose, was stationed in Hooghly district. Bose studied in Dupleix College with his friend Shrish Chandra Ghosh. The principal Charu Chandra Roy inspired them into revolutionary politics. Later he joined "Morton school" in Kolkata. Bose later earned degrees in the medical sciences as well as in Engineering from France and Germany.
He was interested in revolutionary activities from early on in his life, he left Bengal to shun the Alipore bomb case trials of (1908). At Dehradun he worked as a head clerk at the Forest Research Institute. There, through Amarendra Chatterjee of the Jugantar led by Jatin Mukherjee (Bagha Jatin), he secretly got involved with the revolutionaries of Bengal and he came across eminent revolutionary members of the Arya Samaj in the United Provinces (currently Uttar Pradesh) and the Punjab. Originally Rash Behari Bose stay few years in Hooghly district, West Bengal.
Following the attempt to assassinate Lord Hardinge, Rash Behari was forced to go into hiding. The attempt was made on 23 December 1912 after Lord Hardinge was returning from the Delhi Darbar of King George V. He was attacked by Basanta Kumar Biswas a disciple of Amrendar Chattarjee, but he missed the target and failed. The bomb was made by Manindra Nath Nayak. Bose was hunted by the colonial police due to his active participation in the failed assassination attempt (actually Bose's aim was to prove to the world that Indians do not accept the subjection of his country to foreign rule by consent, but by force of military power, which was successful. Otherwise, he had no personal enmity with Lord Hardinge) directed at the Governor General and Viceroy Lord Charles Hardinge in Delhi. He returned to Dehra Dun by the night train and joined the office the next day as though nothing had happened. Further, he organized a meeting of loyal citizens of Dehradun to condemn the dastardly attack on the Viceroy.
Lord Hardinge, in his My Indian Years, described the whole incident in an interesting way. During the flood relief work in Bengal in 1913, he came in contact with Jatin Mukherjee in whom he "discovered a real leader of men," who "added a new impulse" to Rash Behari's failing zeal. Thus during World War I he became extensively involved as one of the leading figures of the Gadar Revolution that attempted to trigger a mutiny in India in February 1915. Trusted and tried Ghadrites were sent to several cantonments to infiltrate into the army. The idea of the Gadar leaders was that with the war raging in Europe most of the soldiers had gone out of India and the rest could be easily won over. The revolution failed and most of the revolutionaries were arrested. But Rash Behari managed to escape British intelligence and reached Japan in 1915.
Bose fled to Japan in 1915, under the alias of Priyanath Tagore, a relative of Rabindranath Tagore. There, Bose found shelter with various Pan-Asian groups. From 1915–1918, he changed residences and identities numerous times, as the British kept pressing the Japanese government for his extradition. He married the daughter of Aizō Sōma and Kokkō Sōma, the owners of Nakamuraya bakery in Tokyo and noted Pan-Asian supporters in 1918, and became a Japanese citizen in 1923, living as a journalist and writer. It is also significant that he was instrumental in introducing Indian-style curry in Japan. Though more expensive than the usual "British-style" curry, it became quite popular, with Rash Bihari becoming known as "Bose of Nakamuraya".
Bose along with A M Nair was instrumental in persuading the Japanese authorities to stand by the Indian nationalists and ultimately to officially actively support the Indian independence struggle abroad. Bose convened a conference in Tokyo on 28–30 March 1942, which decided to establish the Indian Independence League. At the conference, he moved a motion to raise an army for Indian independence. He convened the second conference of the League at Bangkok on 22 June 1942. It was at this conference that a resolution was adopted to invite Subhas Chandra Bose to join the League and take its command as its president.
The Indian prisoners of war captured by the Japanese in the Malaya and Burma fronts were encouraged to join the Indian Independence League and become the soldiers of the Indian National Army (INA), formed on 1 September 1942 as the military wing of Bose's Indian National League. He selected the flag for the Azad Hind movement and handed over the flag to Subhas Chandra Bose. But although he handed over the power, his organizational structure remained, and it was on the organizational spadework of Rash Behari Bose that Subhas Chandra Bose later built the Indian National Army (also called 'Azad Hind Fauj'). Prior to his death caused by tuberculosis, the Japanese Government honored him with the Order of the Rising Sun (2nd grade),.
Bose met Toshiko Soma when he was hiding at her house in Shinjuku City. She was the daughter of Aizō Sōma and Kokkō Sōma, the owners of Nakamuraya bakery in Tokyo and noted Pan-Asian supporters in 1918. At that time, Bose was a fugitive with the British searching for him. Their initial contact was during those intense moments of hiding though without any interactions. In 1916, when Bose was a fugitive no more, he invited the Soma family to his house as a gesture of gratitude. That was the first instance of their interaction in a social context.
However, Bose stuck out like a sore thumb in Japan. People would consider them with suspicion. Mitsuru Toyama, as a solution propsed to the Soma's a marriage between Toshiko and Rashbehari. He thought that marriage with a Japanese citizen would make it easy for Bose to apply for citizenship. Despite their initial reservations, the Soma's agreed to the match. When, they asked for Toshiko's consent, she took three weeks to decide.
They had a happy marriage. Bose taught Toshiko Bengali and how to wear a sari.
Bose got Japanese citizenship in 1923. Toshiko's health declined soon after and it claimed her life in 1924.
Their marriage lasted for eight years.After her death, he never remarried. They were bruied together after Bose's death.
They had two children together. Masahide Bose (Bharatchandra) was born in 1920. He died in WWII aged only 24. Their daughter Tetsuko was born in 1922.