श्यामा प्रसाद मुखर्जी (मृत्यु- 23 जून, 1953)

June 23, 2017

श्यामा प्रसाद मुखर्जी (जन्म- 6 जुलाई, 1901, कोलकाता; मृत्यु- 23 जून, 1953) एक महान शिक्षाविद और चिन्तक होने के साथ-साथ भारतीय जनसंघ के संस्थापक भी थे। उन्हें आज भी एक प्रखर राष्ट्रवादी और कट्टर देशभक्त के रूप में याद किया जाता है। डॉ. श्यामा प्रसाद मुखर्जी सच्चे अर्थों में मानवता के उपासक और सिद्धांतों के पक्के इंसान थे। संसद में उन्होंने सदैव राष्ट्रीय एकता की स्थापना को ही अपना प्रथम लक्ष्य रखा था। संसद में दिए अपने भाषण में उन्होंने पुरजोर शब्दों में कहा था कि "राष्ट्रीय एकता के धरातल पर ही सुनहरे भविष्य की नींव रखी जा सकती है।" भारतीय इतिहास में उनकी छवि एक कर्मठ और जुझारू व्यक्तित्व वाले ऐसे इंसान की है, जो अपनी मृत्यु के इतने वर्षों बाद भी अनेक भारतवासियों के आदर्श और पथप्रदर्शक हैं।


जन्म तथा शिक्षा
डॉ. मुखर्जी का जन्म 6 जुलाई, 1901 को एक प्रसिद्ध बंगाली परिवार में हुआ था। उनकी माता का नाम जोगमाया देवी मुखर्जी था और पिता आशुतोष मुखर्जी बंगाल के एक जाने-माने व्यक्ति और कुशल वकील थे। डॉ. मुखर्जी ने कलकत्ता विश्वविद्यालय से स्नातक की डिग्री प्रथम श्रेणी में 1921 में प्राप्त की थी। इसके बाद उन्होंने 1923 में एम.ए. और 1924 में बी.एल. किया। वे 1923 में ही सीनेट के सदस्य बन गये थे। उन्होंने अपने पिता की मृत्यु के बाद कलकता उच्च न्यायालय में एडवोकेट के रूप में अपना नाम दर्ज कराया। बाद में वे सन 1926 में 'लिंकन्स इन' में अध्ययन करने के लिए इंग्लैंड चले गए और 1927 में बैरिस्टर बन गए। डॉ. मुखर्जी तैंतीस वर्ष की आयु में कलकत्ता विश्वविद्यालय में विश्व के सबसे कम उम्र के कुलपति बनाये गए थे। इस पद को उनके पिता भी सुशोभित कर चुके थे। 1938 तक डॉ. मुखर्जी इस पद को गौरवान्वित करते रहे। उन्होंने अपने कार्यकाल के दौरान अनेक रचनात्मक सुधार कार्य किए तथा 'कलकत्ता एशियाटिक सोसायटी' में सक्रिय रूप से हिस्सा लिया। वे 'इंडियन इंस्टीटयूट ऑफ़ साइंस', बंगलौर की परिषद एवं कोर्ट के सदस्य और इंटर-यूनिवर्सिटी ऑफ़ बोर्ड के चेयरमैन भी रहे।
कलकत्ता विश्वविद्यालय का प्रतिनिधित्व करते हुए श्यामा प्रसाद मुखर्जी कांग्रेस उम्मीदवार के रूप में बंगाल विधान परिषद के सदस्य चुने गए थे, किंतु उन्होंने अगले वर्ष इस पद से उस समय त्यागपत्र दे दिया, जब कांग्रेस ने विधान मंडल का बहिष्कार कर दिया। बाद में उन्होंने स्वतंत्र रूप से चुनाव लड़ा और निर्वाचित हुए। वर्ष 1937-1941 में 'कृषक प्रजा पार्टी' और मुस्लिम लीग का गठबन्धन सत्ता में आया। इस समय डॉ. मुखर्जी विरोधी पक्ष के नेता बन गए। वे फज़लुल हक़ के नेतृत्व में प्रगतिशील गठबन्धन मंत्रालय में वित्तमंत्री के रूप में शामिल हुए, लेकिन उन्होंने एक वर्ष से कम समय में ही इस पद से त्यागपत्र दे दिया। वे हिन्दुओं के प्रवक्ता के रूप में उभरे और शीघ्र ही 'हिन्दू महासभा' में शामिल हो गए। सन 1944 में वे इसके अध्यक्ष नियुक्त किये गए थे। राष्ट्रीय एकात्मता एवं अखण्डता के प्रति आगाध श्रद्धा ने ही डॉ. मुखर्जी को राजनीति के समर में झोंक दिया। अंग्रेज़ों की 'फूट डालो व राज करो' की नीति ने 'मुस्लिम लीग' को स्थापित किया था। डॉ. मुखर्जी ने 'हिन्दू महासभा' का नेतृत्व ग्रहण कर इस नीति को ललकारा। राष्ट्रपिता महात्मा गांधी ने उनके हिन्दू महासभा में शामिल होने का स्वागत किया, क्योंकि उनका मत था कि हिन्दू महासभा में मदन मोहन मालवीय जी के बाद किसी योग्य व्यक्ति के मार्गदर्शन की जरूरत थी। कांग्रेस यदि उनकी सलाह को मानती तो हिन्दू महासभा कांग्रेस की ताकत बनती तथा मुस्लिम लीग की भारत विभाजन की मनोकामना पूर्ण नहीं होती।

महात्मा गांधी की हत्या के बाद डॉ. मुखर्जी चाहते थे कि हिन्दू महासभा को केवल हिन्दुओं तक ही सीमित न रखा जाए अथवा यह जनता की सेवा के लिए एक गैर-राजनीतिक निकाय के रूप में ही कार्य न करे। वे 23 नवम्बर, 1948 को इस मुद्दे पर इससे अलग हो गए। पंडित जवाहरलाल नेहरू ने उन्हें अंतरिम सरकार में उद्योग एवं आपूर्ति मंत्री के रूप में सम्मिलित किया था। डॉ. मुखर्जी ने लियाकत अली ख़ान के साथ दिल्ली समझौते के मुद्दे पर 6 अप्रैल, 1950 को मंत्रिमंडल से त्यागपत्र दे दिया। मुखर्जी जी ने राष्ट्रीय स्वयंसेवक संघ के संघचालक गुरु गोलवलकर जी से परामर्श करने के बाद 21 अक्तूबर, 1951 को दिल्ली में 'भारतीय जनसंघ' की नींव रखी और इसके पहले अध्यक्ष बने। सन 1952 के चुनावों में भारतीय जनसंघ ने संसद की तीन सीटों पर विजय प्राप्त की, जिनमें से एक सीट पर डॉ. मुखर्जी जीतकर आए। उन्होंने संसद के भीतर 'राष्ट्रीय जनतांत्रिक पार्टी' बनायी, जिसमें 32 सदस्य लोक सभा तथा 10 सदस्य राज्य सभा से थे, हालांकि अध्यक्ष द्वारा एक विपक्षी पार्टी के रूप में इसे मान्यता नहीं मिली। उस समय जम्मू-कश्मीर का अलग झंडा और अलग संविधान था। वहाँ का मुख्यमंत्री भी प्रधानमंत्री कहा जाता था। लेकिन डॉ. मुखर्जी जम्मू-कश्मीर को भारत का पूर्ण और अभिन्न अंग बनाना चाहते थे। इसके लिए उन्होंने जोरदार नारा भी दिया कि- एक देश में दो निशान, एक देश में दो प्रधान, एक देश में दो विधान नहीं चलेंगे, नहीं चलेंगे। अगस्त, 1952 में जम्मू की विशाल रैली में उन्होंने अपना संकल्प व्यक्त किया था कि "या तो मैं आपको भारतीय संविधान प्राप्त कराऊँगा या फिर इस उद्देश्य की पूर्ति के लिए अपना जीवन बलिदान कर दूंगा।"
जम्मू-कश्मीर में प्रवेश करने पर डॉ. मुखर्जी को 11 मई, 1953 में शेख़ अब्दुल्ला के नेतृत्व वाली सरकार ने हिरासत में ले लिया, क्योंकि उन दिनों कश्मीर में प्रवेश करने के लिए भारतीयों को एक प्रकार से पासपोर्ट के समान एक परमिट लेना पडता था और डॉ. मुखर्जी बिना परमिट लिए जम्मू-कश्मीर चले गए थे, जहाँ उन्हें गिरफ्तार कर नजरबंद कर लिया गया। वहाँ गिरफ्तार होने के कुछ दिन बाद ही 23 जून, 1953 को रहस्यमय परिस्थितियों में उनकी मृत्यु हो गई। उनकी मृत्यु का खुलासा आज तक नहीं हो सका है। भारत की अखण्डता के लिए आज़ाद भारत में यह पहला बलिदान था। इसका परिणाम यह हुआ कि शेख़ अब्दुल्ला हटा दिये गए और अलग संविधान, अलग प्रधान एवं अलग झण्डे का प्रावधान निरस्त हो गया। 'धारा 370' के बावजूद कश्मीर आज भारत का अभिन्न अंग बना हुआ है। इसका सर्वाधिक श्रेय डॉ. मुखर्जी को ही दिया जाता है।


Shyama Prasad Mukherjee (06 July 1901 – 23 June 1953) was an Indian politician, barrister and academician, who served as Minister for Industry and Supply in Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's cabinet. After falling out with Nehru, Mukherjee quit the Indian National Congress and founded the right wing nationalist Bharatiya Jana Sangh, a predecessor to the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), in 1951.


He was also the president of Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha from 1943 to 1946. Mukherjee was strongly opposed to Article 370 seeing as a threat to unity of the country and fought against it inside and outside the parliament with one of the goals of Bharatiya Jana Sangh being abrogation of the article. He died in 1953 under mysterious circumstances.



Shyama Prasad Mukherjee was born in a Bengali Hindu family on 6 July 1901 in Calcutta (Kolkata).His father was Ashutosh Mukherjee, a judge of the High Court of Calcutta, Bengal, who was also Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta. His mother was Jogamaya Devi Mukherjee.


He enrolled in Bhawanipur's Mitra Institution in 1906 and his behaviour in school was later described favourably by his teachers. In 1914, he passed his matriculation examination and was admitted into Presidency College. He stood seventeenth in the Inter Arts Examination in 1916and graduated in English, securing the first position in first class in 1921. He was married to Sudha Devi on 16 April 1922. Mukherjee also completed an M.A. in Bengali, being graded as first class in 1923 and also became a fellow of the Senate[clarification needed] in 1923. He completed his B.L. in 1924.


He enrolled as an advocate in Calcutta High Court in 1924, the same year in which his father had died. Subsequently, he left for England in 1926 to study at Lincoln's Inn and was called to the English Bar in the same year. In 1934, at the age of 33, he became the youngest Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta; he held the office until 1938.[16] During his term as Vice-Chancellor, Rabindranath Tagore delivered the University Convocation Address in Bengali for the first time, and the Indian vernacular was introduced as a subject for the highest examination. Mukherjee received the D.Litt from Calcutta University on 26 November, 1938.


Mukherjee started his political career in 1929, when he entered the Bengal Legislative Council as an Indian National Congress (INC) candidate representing Calcutta University.However, he resigned the next year when the INC decided to boycott the legislature. Subsequently, he contested the election as an independent candidate and was elected in the same year. In 1937, he was elected as an independent candidate in the elections which brought the Krishak Praja Party-All India Muslim League coalition to power.He served as the Finance Minister of Bengal Province in 1941–42 under A.K. Fazlul Haq's Progressive Coalition government which was formed on 12 December 1941 after the resignations of Muslim League ministers of the government. During his tenure, his statements against the government were censored and his movements were restricted. He was also prevented from visiting the Midnapore district in 1942 when severe floods caused a heavy loss of life and property. He resigned on 20 November 1942 accusing the British government of trying to hold on to India under any cost and criticised its repressive policies against the Quit India Movement. After resigning, he mobilised support and organised relief with the help of Mahabodhi Society, Ramakrishna Mission and Marwari Relief Society. In 1946, he was again elected as an independent candidate from the Calcutta University. He was elected as a member of the Constituent Assembly of India in the same year.


Mukherjee joined the Hindu Mahasabha in Bengal in 1939 and became its acting president that same year. He was appointed as the working president of the organisation in 1940. In February 1941, Mukherjee told a Hindu rally that if Muslims wanted to live in Pakistan they should "pack their bag and baggage and leave India ...  wherever they like". He was elected as the President of Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha in 1943.He remained in this position till 1946, with Laxman Bhopatkar becoming the new President in the same year.


Mukherjee demanded the partition of Bengal in 1946 to prevent the inclusion of its Hindu-majority areas in a Muslim-dominated East Pakistan.[5] A meeting held by the Mahasabha on 15 April 1947 in Tarakeswar authorised him to take steps for ensuring partition of Bengal. In May 1947, he wrote a letter to Lord Mountbatten telling him that Bengal must be partitioned even if India was not. He also opposed a failed bid for a united but independent Bengal made in 1947 by Sarat Bose, the brother of Subhas Chandra Bose, and Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, a Bengali Muslim politician. His views were strongly affected by the Noakhali genocide in East Bengal, where mobs belonging to the Muslim League massacred Hindus.


Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru inducted Mukherjee into the Interim Central Government as a Minister for Industry and Supply on 15 August 1947. Mukherjee began to have differences with Mahasabha after the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, in which the organisation was blamed by Sardar Patel for creating the atmosphere that led to the killing. Mukherjee suggested the organisation suspend its political activities. Shortly after it did, in December 1948, he left. One of his reasons was the rejection of his proposal to allow non-Hindus to become members.


Mukherjee resigned along with K.C. Neogy from the Cabinet on 8 April 1950 over a disagreement about the 1950 Delhi Pact with Pakistani Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan. Mukherjee was firmly against their joint pact to establish minority commissions and guarantee minority rights in both countries as he thought it left Hindus in East Bengal to the mercy of Pakistan. While addressing a rally in Calcutta on 21 May, he stated that an exchange of population and property at governmental level on regional basis between East Bengal and the states of Tripura, Assam, West Bengal and Bihar was the only option in the current situation.


After consultation with M. S. Golwalkar of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), Mukherjee founded the Bharatiya Jana Sangh on 21 October 1951 in Delhi, becoming its first president. In the 1952 elections, the Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS) won three seats in the Parliament of India, including Mukherjee's. He had formed the National Democratic Party within the Parliament. It consisted of 32 members of the Lok Sabha and 10 members of the Rajya Sabha; however, it was not recognised by the speaker as an opposition party.The BJS was created with the objective of nation-building and "nationalising" all non-Hindus by "inculcating Bharatiya Culture" in them. The party was ideologically close to the RSS and widely considered the proponent of Hindu nationalism.


Mukherjee was strongly opposed to Article 370, seeing it as a threat to national unity. He fought against it inside and outside the parliament with one of the goals of Bharatiya Jana Sangh being its abrogation. He raised his voice strongly against the provision in his Lok Sabha speech on 26 June 1952. He termed the arrangements under the article as Balkanization of India and the three-nation theory of Sheikh Abdullah. The state was granted its own flag along with a prime minister whose permission was required for anyone to enter the state. In opposition to this, Mukherjee once said "Ek desh mein do Vidhan, do Pradhan aur Do Nishan nahi chalenge" (A single country can't have two constitutions, two prime ministers, and two national emblems). Bharatiya Jana Sangh along with Hindu Mahasabha and Jammu Praja Parishad launched a massive Satyagraha to get the provisions removed. In his letter to Nehru dated 3 February 1953, he wrote that the issue of accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India should not be allowed to hang fire.


Mukherjee went to visit Kashmir in 1953 illegally, and observed a hunger strike to protest the law that prohibited Indian citizens from settling within the state and mandating that they carry ID cards.Mukherjee wanted to go to Jammu and Kashmir but, because of the prevailing permit system, he was not given permission. He was arrested on 11 May at Lakhenpur while crossing the border into Kashmir illegally. Although the ID card rule was revoked owing to his efforts, he died as a detainee on 23 June 1953 under mysterious circumstances.


Shyama Prasad had three brothers who were: Rama Prasad who was born in 1896, Uma Prasad who was born in 1902 and Bama Prasad Mukherjee who was born in 1906. Rama Prasad became a judge in High Court of Calcutta while Uma became famed as a trekker and a travel writer. He also had three sisters who were: Kamala who was born in 1895, Amala who was born in 1905 and Ramala in 1908. He was married to Sudha Devi for 11 years and had five children – the last one, a four-month-old son, died from diphtheria. His wife died of double pneumonia shortly afterwards in 1933 or 1934. Shyama Prasad refused to remarry after her death.He had two sons, Anutosh and Debatosh, and two daughters, Sabita and Arati. His grandniece Kamala Sinha served as the Minister of State for External affairs in the I. K. Gujral ministry.


Shyama Prasad was also affiliated with the Buddhist Mahabodhi Society. In 1942, he succeeded Dr. M.N. Mukherjee to become the president of the organisation. The relics of Gautam Buddha's two disciples Sariputta and Maudgalyayana, discovered in the Great Stupa at Sanchi by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1851 and kept at the British Museum, were brought back to India by HMIS Tir. A ceremony attended by politicians and leaders of many foreign countries was held on the next day at Calcutta Maidan. They were handed over by Nehru to Mukherjee, who later took these relics to Cambodia, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. Upon his return to India, he placed the relics inside the Sanchi Stupa in November 1952.


Mukherjee was arrested upon entering Kashmir on 11 May 1953. He and two of his arrested companions were first taken to Central Jail of Srinagar. Later they were transferred to a cottage outside the city. Mukherjee's condition started deteriorating and he started feeling pain in the back and high temperature on the night between 19 and 20 June. He was diagnosed with dry pleurisy from which he had also suffered in 1937 and 1944. The doctor Ali Mohammad prescribed him a streptomycin injection and powders, however Mukherjee informed him that his family physician had told him that streptomycin did not suit his system. The doctor however told him that new information about the drug had come to light and assured him that he would be fine. On 22 June, he felt pain in the heart region, started perspiring and started feeling like he was fainting. He was later shifted to a hospital and provisionally diagnosed with a heart attack. He died a day later under mysterious circumstances. The state government declared that he had died on 23 June at 3:40 a.m. due to a heart attack.


His death in custody raised wide suspicion across the country and demands for an independent enquiry were raised, including earnest requests from his mother, Jogamaya Devi, to Nehru. The prime minister declared that he had asked a number of persons who were privy to the facts and, according to him, there was no mystery behind Mukherjee's death. Devi did not accept Nehru's reply and requested an impartial enquiry. Nehru, however, ignored the letter and no enquiry commission was set up. Mukherjee's death therefore remains a matter of some controversy.


Only one nurse, Rajdulari Tiku, was present by his side in the hospital. According to her, when Mukherjee started crying in agony for a doctor, she fetched Dr. Jagannath Zutshi. The doctor found him in a grave condition and called Dr. Ali. Mukherjee's condition kept deteriorating and he died at 2:25 a.m.


S.C. Das claims that Mukherjee was murdered.[82] Atal Bihari Vajpayee claimed in 2004 that the arrest of Mukherjee in Jammu and Kashmir was a "Nehru conspiracy".