लाला हरदयाल (जन्म- 14 अक्टूबर, 1884)

October 14, 2017

लाला हरदयाल (जन्म- 14 अक्टूबर, 1884, दिल्ली; मृत्यु- 4 मार्च, 1939 ई., फिलाडेलफिया) प्रसिद्ध क्रांतिकारी थे। लाला हरदयाल जी ने 'ग़दर पार्टी' की स्थापना की थी। विदेशों में भटकते हुए अनेक कष्ट सहकर लाला हरदयाल जी ने देशभक्तों को भारत की आज़ादी के लिए प्रेरित व प्रोत्साहित किया।


शिक्षा
लाला हरदयाल जी ने दिल्ली और लाहौर में उच्च शिक्षा प्राप्त की। देशभक्ति की भावना उनके अन्दर छात्र जीवन से ही भरी थी। मास्टर अमीर चन्द, भाई बाल मुकुन्द आदि के साथ उन्होंने दिल्ली में भी युवकों के एक दल का गठन किया था। लाहौर में उनके दल में लाला लाजपत राय जैसे युवक सम्मिलित थे। एम. ए. की परीक्षा में सम्मानपूर्ण स्थान पाने के कारण उन्हें पंजाब सरकार की छात्रवृत्ति मिली और वे अध्ययन के लिए लंदन चले गए।


पोलिटिकल मिशनरी
लंदन में लाला हरदयाल जी भाई परमानन्द, श्याम कृष्ण वर्मा आदि के सम्पर्क में आए। उन्हें अंग्रेज़ सरकार की छात्रवृत्ति पर शिक्षा प्राप्त करना स्वीकार नहीं था। उन्होंने श्याम कृष्ण वर्मा के सहयोग से ‘पॉलिटिकल मिशनरी’ नाम की एक संस्था बनाई। इसके द्वारा भारतीय विद्यार्थियों को राष्ट्र की मुख्यधारा में लाने का प्रयत्न करते रहे। दो वर्ष उन्होंने लंदन के सेंट जोंस कॉलेज में बिताए और फिर भारत वापस आ गए।


सम्पादक
हरदयाल जी अपनी ससुराल पटियाला, दिल्ली होते हुए लाहौर पहुँचे और ‘पंजाब’ नामक अंग्रेज़ी पत्र के सम्पादक बन गए। उनका प्रभाव बढ़ता देखकर सरकारी हल्कों में जब उनकी गिरफ़्तारी की चर्चा होने लगी तो लाला लाजपत राय ने आग्रह करके उन्हें विदेश भेज दिया। वे पेरिस पहुँचे। श्याम कृष्णा वर्मा और भीकाजी कामा वहाँ पहले से ही थे। लाला हरदयाल ने वहाँ जाकर ‘वन्दे मातरम्’ और ‘तलवार’ नामक पत्रों का सम्पादन किया। 1910 ई. में हरदयाल सेनफ़्राँसिस्को, अमेरिका पहुँचे। वहाँ उन्होंने भारत से गए मज़दूरों को संगठित किया। ‘ग़दर’ नामक पत्र निकाला।


रचनाएँ
Thoughts on Education
युगान्तर सरकुलर
राजद्रोही प्रतिबन्धित साहित्य(गदर,ऐलाने-जंग,जंग-दा-हांका)
Social Conquest of Hindu Race
Writings of Hardayal
Forty Four Months in Germany & Turkey
स्वाधीन विचार
लाला हरदयाल जी के स्वाधीन विचार
अमृत में विष
Hints For Self Culture
Twelve Religions & Modern Life
Glimpses of World Religions
Bodhisatva Doctrines
व्यक्तित्व विकास (संघर्ष और सफलता)



ग़दर पार्टी

ग़दर पार्टी की स्थापना 25 जून, 1913 ई. में की गई थी। पार्टी का जन्म अमेरिका के सैन फ्रांसिस्को के 'एस्टोरिया' में अंग्रेजी साम्राज्य को जड़ से उखाड़ फेंकने के उद्देश्य से हुआ। ग़दर पार्टी के संस्थापक अध्यक्ष सोहन सिंह भकना थे। इसके अतिरिक्त केसर सिंह थथगढ (उपाध्यक्ष), लाला हरदयाल (महामंत्री), लाला ठाकुरदास धुरी (संयुक्त सचिव) और पण्डित कांशीराम मदरोली (कोषाध्यक्ष) थे। ‘ग़दर’ नामक पत्र के आधार पर ही पार्टी का नाम भी ‘ग़दर पार्टी’ रखा गया था। ‘ग़दर’ पत्र ने संसार का ध्यान भारत में अंग्रेज़ों के द्वारा किए जा रहे अत्याचार की ओर दिलाया। नई पार्टी की कनाडा, चीन, जापान आदि में शाखाएँ खोली गईं। लाला हरदयाल इसके महासचिव थे।


सशस्त्र क्रान्ति


प्रथम विश्वयुद्ध आरम्भ होने पर लाला हरदयाल ने भारत में सशस्त्र क्रान्ति को प्रोत्साहित करने के लिए क़दम उठाए। जून, 1915 ई. में जर्मनी से दो जहाज़ों में भरकर बन्दूक़ें बंगाल भेजी गईं, परन्तु मुखबिरों के सूचना पर दोनों जहाज़ जब्त कर लिए गए। हरदयाल ने भारत का पक्ष प्रचार करने के लिए स्विट्ज़रलैण्ड, तुर्की आदि देशों की भी यात्रा की। जर्मनी में उन्हें कुछ समय तक नज़रबन्द कर लिया गया था। वहाँ से वे स्वीडन चले गए, जहाँ उन्होंने अपने जीवन के 15 वर्ष बिताए।


मृत्यु
हरदयाल जी अपने उद्देश्य की पूर्ति के लिए कहीं से सहयोग न मिलने पर शान्तिवाद का प्रचार करने लगे। इस विषय पर व्याख्यान देने के लिए वे फिलाडेलफिया गए थे। 1939 ई. में वे भारत आने के लिए उत्सुक थे। उन्होंने अपनी पुत्री का मुँह भी नहीं देखा था, जो उनके भारत छोड़ने के बाद पैदा हुई थी, लेकिन यह न हो सका, वे अपनी पुत्री को एक बार भी नहीं देख सके। भारत में उनके आवास की व्यवस्था हो चुकी थी, पर देश की आज़ादी का यह फ़कीर 4 मार्च, 1939 ई. को कुर्सी पर बैठा-बैठा विदेश में ही सदा के लिए पंचतत्त्व में विलीन हो गया।


Lala Har Dayal (14 October 1884 in Delhi, India – 4 March 1939 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was an Indian nationalist revolutionary.He was a polymath who turned down a career in the Indian Civil Service. His simple living and intellectual acumen inspired many expatriate Indians living in Canada and the USA to fight against British Imperialism during the First World War.


He was born in a Punjabi family on 14 October 1884 at Delhi. Har Dayal was the sixth of seven children of Bholi Rani and Gauri Dayal Mathur. His father was a Reader in the District Court. Lala is not so much a surname as a sub-caste designation, within the Kayastha community, but it is generally termed as an honorific title for writers such as the word Pandit which is used for knowledgeable persons in other Hindu communities. At an early age he was influenced by Arya Samaj. He was associated with Shyam Krishnavarma, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and Bhikaji Cama. He also drew inspiration from Giuseppe Mazzini, Karl Marx and Mikhail Bakunin. He was, according to Emily Brown as quoted by Juergensmeyer, "in sequence an atheist, a revolutionary, a Buddhist, and a pacifist".


He studied at the Cambridge Mission School and received his bachelor's degree in Sanskrit from St. Stephen's College, Delhi, India and his master's degree also in Sanskrit from Punjab University. In 1905, he received two scholarships of Oxford University for his higher studies in Sanskrit: (Boden Scholarship, 1907 and Casberd Exhibitioner, and award from St John's College, where he was studying. In a letter to The Indian Sociologist, published in 1907, he started to explore anarchist ideas, arguing that "our object is not to reform government, but to reform it's  away, leaving, if necessary only nominal traces of it's [sic?] existence." The letter led to him being put under surveillance by the police. Later that year, saying "To Hell with the ICS", he gave up the prestigious Oxford scholarships and returned to India in 1908 to live a life of austerity. But in India too, he started writing harsh articles in the leading news papers, When the British Government decided to impose a ban upon his writing Lala Lajpat Rai advised him to leave and go abroad. It was during this period that he came into the friendship of the anarchist Guy Aldred, who was put on trial for printing The Indian Sociologist.


He moved to Paris in 1909 and became editor of the Vande Mataram. But he was not very happy in Paris, so he left the Paris and moved to Algeria. There too, he was unhappy and wondering whether to go- either to Cuba or Japan. After all he went to Martinique, where he started living a life of austerity. An Arya Samaj Missionary, Bhai Parmanand went there to look for him, and found him lonely and isolated. The two discussed founding a new religion modelled on Buddhism. Har Dayal was living an ascetic life eating only boiled grain and potatoes, sleeping on the floor and meditating in a secluded place. Guy Aldred later related that this religion's motto was to be Atheism, Cosmopolitanism and moral law. Emily Brown and Erik Erikson have described this as a crisis of "ego-identity" for him. Parmanand says that Har Dayal agreed to go to the United States to propagate the ancient culture of the Aryan Race.


Hardayal went straight from Boston to California, where he wrote an idyllic account of life in the United States. He then moved on to Honolulu in Hawaii where he spent some time meditating on Waikiki Beach. During his stay he made friends with Japanese Buddhists. He also started studying the works of Karl Marx. Whilst here he wrote Some Phases of Contemporary Thought in India subsequently published in Modern Review. Parmanand persuaded him by letter to return to California.


He moved to the United States in 1911, where he became involved in industrial unionism. He had also served as secretary of the San Francisco branch of the Industrial Workers of the World alongside Fritz Wolffheim, (later a National Bolshevik after he had left IWW and joined the Communist Workers Party of Germany). In a statement outlining the principles of the Fraternity of the Red Flag he said they proposed "the establishment of Communism, and the abolition of private property in land and capital through industrial organisation and the general strike, ultimate abolition of the coercive organisation of government". A little over a year later, this group was given 6 acres (24,000 m2) of land and a house in Oakland, where he founded the Bakunin Institute of California, which he described as "the first monastery of anarchism". The organisation aligned itself with the Regeneración movement founded by the exiled Mexicans Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón. He had a designated post of a lecturer in Indian philosophy and Sanskrit at Leland Stanford University. However, he was forced to resign because of embarrassment about his activities in the anarchist movement.


He had developed contacts with Indian American farmers in Stockton, California. Having developed an Indian Nationalist perspective, he encouraged young Indians to gain a scientific and sociological education. With the personal help of Teja Singh, Tarak Nath Das and Arthur Pope and funding from Jwala Singh, a rich farmer from Stockton, he set up Guru Govind Singh Sahib Educational Scholarship for Indian students. With Shyamji Krishna Verma's India House in London, he established his house as a home for these students. Amongst the six students who responded to the offer were Nand Singh Sehra, Darisi Chenchiah and Gobind Behari Lal, his wife's cousin. They lived together in a rented apartment close to the University of California, Berkeley.


At the time, he was still a vigorous anarchist propagandist and had very little to do with the nationalist Nalanda Club, composed of Indian students. However Basanta Kumar Biswas's attempt on the life of the Indian Viceroy, Lord Hardinge, on 23 December 1912 had a major impact upon him. He visited the Nalanda Club Hostel to tell them this news at dinner. He delivered a rousing lecture, which ended with the following couplet of the Urdu poet Mir Taqi 'Mir' of Delhi (India):


"Pagari apani sambhaliyega 'Mir' !
Aur basti nahin, ye Dilli hai !!"
"Take care of your turban Mr Mir ! (Note: Here Mir is Quoted for Britishers.)
This is not just any town, this is Delhi, India Okay !!'
The hostel then became a party with dancing and the singing of Vande Mataram. Hardayal excitedly told his anarchist friends of what one of his men had done in India.


He quickly brought out a pamphlet called the Yugantar Circular in which he eulogised about the bombing:-


“Who can describe the moral power of the bomb? It is concentrated moral dynamite. When the strong and cunning in the pride of their power parade their glory before their helpless victims, when the rich and naughty set themselves on a pedestal and ask their slaves to fall down before them and worship them, when the wicked ones on the Earth seem exalted to the sky and nothing appears to withstand their might, then in that dark hour, for the glory of humanity comes the bomb, which lays the tyrant in the dust. It tells all the cowering slaves that he who sits enthroned as God, is a mere man like them. Then, in that hour of shame, a bomb preaches the eternal truth of human equality and sends proud superiors and Viceroys from the palace and the howdah to the grave and the hospital. Then, in that tense moment, when human nature is ashamed of itself, the bomb declares the vanity of power and pomp and redeems us from our own baseness. HOW GREAT WE FEEL WHEN SOMEONE DOES THE HEROIC DEED? WE SHARE IN HIS MORAL POWER. WE REJOICE IN HIS ASSERTION OF HUMAN EQUALITY AND DIGNITY."


n April 1914, he was arrested by the United States government for spreading anarchist literature and fled to Berlin, Germany. He subsequently lived for a decade in Sweden. He received his Ph.D. degree in 1930 from the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London. In 1932, he got his book Hints For Self Culture published and embarked on a lecture circuit covering Europe, India, and the United States.


He died in Philadelphia on March 4, 1939. In the evening of his death he delivered a lecture as usual where he had said "I am in peace with all". But a very close friend of Lala Hardayal and the founder member of Bharat Mata Society (established in 1907), Lala Hanumant Sahai did not accept the death as natural, he suspected it as poisoning.


In 1987, the India Department of Posts issued a commemorative stamp in his honour, within the series of "India's Struggle for Freedom".


Har Dayal dedicated his whole life to the sacred cause of the mother land. Surely from such a person alone could one ask: "Good Master, what shall I do to inhirit eternal life?" Let us drink deep at this spring and wax glad and strong and brave in every nerve and fibre of our being. He was one of the race of those who wrote the New Era in blood. His course was laborious, truthful, simple, independent, noble; and all these in an eminent degree. His experience of the inward and the outward battle was not inconsiderable and it was not confined to his early manhood, but was spread over his whole life. Lala Har Dayal had the Janak and Dadhichi touch and his life demonstrated that he had what it takes.