कमलादेवी चट्टोपाध्याय (मृत्यु: 29 अक्टूबर, 1988)

October 29, 2017

कमलादेवी चट्टोपाध्याय (जन्म: 3 अप्रैल, 1903 – मृत्यु: 29 अक्टूबर, 1988) भारत की समाजसुधारक, स्वतंत्रता संग्राम सेनानी, तथा भारतीय हस्तकला के क्षेत्र में नवजागरण लाने वाली गांधीवादी महिला थीं। उन्हे समाज सेवा के लिए 1955 में पद्म भूषण और सामुदायिक नेतृत्व के लिए सन 1966 में रेमन मैग्सेसे पुरस्कार से सम्मानित किया गया।


जीवन परिचय
कमलादेवी चट्टोपाध्याय का जन्म कर्नाटक के एक सम्पन्न ब्राह्मण परिवार, में 3 अप्रैल, सन् 1903 में हुआ था। उन्होंने मंगलोर तथा बाद में लन्दन के अर्थशास्त्र स्कूल से शिक्षा ग्रहण की। उनकी शादी अत्यन्त छोटी अवस्था में हो गयी तथा स्कूली शिक्षा के दौरान विधवा हो गयी थी। बाद में उन्होंने अपनी पसन्द के व्यक्ति हरिन चट्टोपाध्याय से वैवाहिक संबंध जोड़ दिया। कमलादेवी ने अपनी पति के साथ व्यापक रूप से यात्राएं की। वे एक सामाजिक कार्यकर्ता और कला और साहित्य की समर्थक थी।


व्यक्तित्व
कमलादेवी चट्टोपाध्याय ब्राह्मण होते हुए समाजवादी थीं। बालिका वधू होते हुये वो स्त्री अधिकारवादी थीं। एक ऐसी राजनेता थीं जिन्हें कुर्सी की दरकार नहीं थी। एक ऐसी कुलीन वर्ग की महिला जिन्होंने लोक कलाओं को पुनर्जीवित किया। गांधीजी के नमक आंदोलन में गिरफ्तारी देने वाली पहली महिलाओं में से एक थीं कमलादेवी। विभाजन के बाद उन्होंने शरणार्थियों के पुनर्वास में अपने आप को झोंक दिया। कमला देवी गांधी जी, जवाहर लाल नेहरू, मौलाना अबुल कलाम आज़ाद, सरोजनी नायडू तथा कस्तूरबा गांधी से गहरे रूप से प्रभावित थी। उन्होंने स्वाधीनता संघर्ष में हिस्सा लिया तथा अनेकों बार जेल गयी।


सम्मान और पुरस्कार
पद्म भूषण (1955)
पद्म विभूषण (1987)
रेमन मैग्सेसे पुरस्कार (1988)
संगीत नाटक अकादमी फैलोशिप
रत्न सदस्य
संगीत नाटक अकादमी द्वारा लाइफ़ टाइम अचीवमेंट अवार्ड



निधन
कमला देवी भारत में नारी आन्दोलन की पथप्रदर्शक थी। सन् 29 अक्टूबर 1988 में वे स्वर्गवासी हो गयी।


Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay (3 April 1903 – 29 October 1988) was an Indian social reformer and freedom fighter. She is most remembered for her contribution to the Indian independence movement; for being the driving force behind the renaissance of Indian handicrafts, handlooms, and theatre in independent India; and for upliftment of the socio-economic standard of Indian women by pioneering the co-operative movement.


Several cultural institutions in India today exist because of her vision, including the National School of Drama, Sangeet Natak Akademi, Central Cottage Industries Emporium, and the Crafts Council of India. She stressed the significance which handicrafts and cooperative grassroot movements play in the social and economic upliftment of the Indian people. To this end she withstood great opposition both before and after independence from the power centres.


In 1974, she was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship the highest honour conferred by the Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy of Music, Dance & Drama.


Born on 3 April 1903 in Mangalore, Kamaladevi was the fourth and youngest daughter. Her father, Ananthaya Dhareshwar was the District Collector of Mangalore, and her mother Girijabai, from whom she inherited an independent streak, belonged to an aristocratic family from Karnataka. Kamaladevi's grandmother was herself, a scholar of ancient Indian texts, and her a mother was also well-educated though mostly home-educated. Together their presence in the household, gave Kamaladevi a firm grounding and provided benchmarks to respect for her intellect as well as her voice, something that she came to known for in the coming years, when she stood as the voice of the downtrodden as well as the unheard.


Kamaladevi was an exceptional student and also exhibited qualities of determination and courage from an early age. Her parents' befriended many prominent freedom fighters and intellectuals such as Mahadev Govind Ranade, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and women leaders like Ramabai Ranade, and Annie Besant, this made young Kamaladevi an early enthusiast of the swadeshi nationalist movement.


She studied about ancient Sanskrit drama tradition of Kerala- Kutiyattam, from its greatest Guru and authority of Abhinaya, Nātyāchārya Padma Shri Māni Mādhava Chākyār by staying at Guru's home at Killikkurussimangalam.


Tragedy struck early in life, when her elder sister, Saguna, whom she considered a role model, died in her teens, soon after her early marriage, and when she was just seven years old her father died as well. To add to her mother, Girijabai's trouble, he died without leaving a will for his vast property, so according to property laws of the times, the entire property went to her stepson, and they only got a monthly allowance. Girijabai defiantly refused the allowance and decided to raise her daughters on her dowry property.


Her rebellious streak was visible even as a child, when young Kamaladevi questioned the aristocratic division of her mother's household, and preferred to mingle with her servants and their children wanting to understand their life as well.She was a great freedom fighter.
The Government of India conferred on her the Padma Bhushan (1955) and later the second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan in 1987, which are among the highest civilian awards of the Republic of India. She also received the Ramon Magsaysay Award (1966) for Community Leadership. She was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship, Ratna Sadsya, the highest award of Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama, given for lifetime achievement in 1974,.


UNESCO honoured her with an award in 1977 for her contribution towards the promotion of handicrafts. Shantiniketan honoured her with the Desikottama, its highest award.