एडवर्ड जेनर -जन्म: (17 मई, 1749)

May 17, 2017

एडवर्ड जेनर (जन्म- 17 मई, 1749; मृत्यु- 26 जनवरी, 1823) एक प्रसिद्ध कायचिकित्सक थे। विश्व में इनका नाम इसलिए भी प्रसिद्ध है कि इन्होंने 'चेचक' के टीके का आविष्कार किया था। एडवर्ड जेनर के इस आविष्कार से आज करोड़ों लोग चेचक जैसी घातक बीमारी से ठीक हो रहे हैं और अपने जीवन का आनन्द ले रहे हैं। यदि एडवर्ड जेनर नहीं होते तो आज सम्पूर्ण दुनिया के 1.5 करोड़ लोग प्रतिवर्ष सिर्फ़ 'चेचक' के द्वारा काल के ग्रास बन रहे होते।


जन्म तथा शिक्षा
एडवर्ड जेनर का जन्म 17 मई, 1749 ई. में बर्कले में हुआ था। 'उट्टन' में अपनी प्रारंभिक शिक्षा समाप्त करने के उपरांत ये सन 1770 में लंदन गय थे और सन 1792 में 'ऐंड्रय्‌ज कॉलेज' से एम. डी. की उपाधि प्राप्त की।


शोध कार्य


अपने विद्यार्थी जीवन काल में ही एडवर्ड जेनर ने कैप्टेन कुक की समुद्री यात्रा से प्राप्त प्राणिशास्त्रीय नमूनों को व्यवस्थित करना प्रारम्भ कर दिया और शोध कार्य में लग गए। सन 1775 में इन्होंने सिद्ध किया कि 'गोमसूरी'[2] में दो विभिन्न प्रकार की बीमारियाँ सम्मिलित हैं, जिनमें से केवल एक 'चेचक' से रक्षा करती है। एडवर्ड जेनर ने यह भी निश्चित किया कि 'गोमसूरी', 'चेचक' और 'घोड़े के पैर की ग्रीज़'[3] नामक बीमारियाँ अनुषंगी हैं। 1798 में इन्होंने 'चेचक के टीके के कारणों और प्रभावों' पर एक निबंध भी प्रकाशित किया।


सम्मान व पुरस्कार
1803 में 'चेचक' के टीके के प्रसार के लिये 'रॉयल जेनेरियन संस्था' की स्थापना हुई। एडवर्ड जेनर के कार्यों के उलक्ष्य में 'आक्सफ़ोर्ड विश्वविद्यालय' ने इन्हें 'एम. डी.' की सम्मानित उपाधि से विभूषित किया। 1822 में 'कुछ रोगों में कृत्रिम विस्फोटन का प्रभाव' पर निबंध प्रकाशित किया और दूसरे वर्ष 'रॉयल सोसाइटी' में 'पक्षी प्रर्वाजन' पर निबंध लिखा।


निधन


26 जनवरी, 1823 को बर्कले में एडवर्ड जेनर का देहावसान हुआ।


Edward Jenner, ( 17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.The terms "vaccine" and "vaccination" are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1796 in the long title of his Inquiry into the Variolae vaccinae known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox.


Jenner is often called "the father of immunology", and his work is said to have "saved more lives than the work of any other human". In Jenner’s time, smallpox killed around 10 percent of the population, with the number as high as 20 percent in towns and cities where infection spread more easily. In 1821 he was appointed physician extraordinary to King George IV, and was also made mayor of Berkeley and justice of the peace. A member of the Royal Society, in the field of zoology he was the first person to describe the brood parasitism of the cuckoo. In 2002, Jenner was named in the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons.



Edward Anthony Jenner was born on 17 May 1749 (6 May Old Style) in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, as the eighth of nine children. His father, the Reverend Stephen Jenner, was the vicar of Berkeley, so Jenner received a strong basic education.


He went to school in Wotton-under-Edge and Cirencester. During this time, he was inoculated for smallpox, which had a lifelong effect upon his general health. (Crucially this meant that he underwent variolation and not vaccination.)At the age of 14, he was apprenticed for seven years to Daniel Ludlow, a surgeon of Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire, where he gained most of the experience needed to become a surgeon himself.



Jenner's 1802 testimonial to the efficacy of vaccination, signed by 112 members of the Physical Society, London
In 1770, Jenner became apprenticed in surgery and anatomy under surgeon John Hunter and others at St George's Hospital. William Osler records that Hunter gave Jenner William Harvey's advice, well-known in medical circles (and characteristic of the Age of Enlightenment), "Don't think; try." Hunter remained in correspondence with Jenner over natural history and proposed him for the Royal Society. Returning to his native countryside by 1773, Jenner became a successful family doctor and surgeon, practising on dedicated premises at Berkeley.


Jenner and others formed the Fleece Medical Society or Gloucestershire Medical Society, so called because it met in the parlour of the Fleece Inn, Rodborough (in Gloucestershire). Members dined together and read papers on medical subjects. Jenner contributed papers on angina pectoris, ophthalmia, and cardiac valvular disease and commented on cowpox. He also belonged to a similar society which met in Alveston, near Bristol.


He became a master mason on 30 December 1802, in Lodge of Faith and Friendship #449. From 1812–1813, he served as worshipful master of Royal Berkeley Lodge of Faith and Friendship.


Inoculation was already a standard practice but involved serious risks, one of which was the fear that those inoculated would then transfer the disease to those around them due to their becoming carriers of the disease. In 1721, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu had imported variolation to Britain after having observed it in Constantinople. Voltaire wrote that at this time 60% of the population caught smallpox and 20% of the population died of it. Voltaire also states that the Circassians used the inoculation from times immemorial, and the custom may have been borrowed by the Turks from the Circassians.



The steps taken by Edward Jenner to create vaccination, the first vaccine for smallpox. Jenner did this by inoculating James Phipps with cowpox, a virus similar to smallpox, to create immunity, unlike variolation, which used smallpox to create an immunity to itself.
By 1768, English physician John Fewster had realised that prior infection with cowpox rendered a person immune to smallpox.[25] In the years following 1770, at least five investigators in England and Germany (Sevel, Jensen, Jesty 1774, Rendell, Plett 1791) successfully tested in humans a cowpox vaccine against smallpox.For example, Dorset farmer Benjamin Jesty successfully vaccinated and presumably induced immunity with cowpox in his wife and two children during a smallpox epidemic in 1774, but it was not until Jenner's work that the procedure became widely understood. Jenner may have been aware of Jesty's procedures and success. A similar observation had also been made in France by Jacques Antoine Rabaut-Pommier in 1780.


Noting the common observation that milkmaids were generally immune to smallpox, Jenner postulated that the pus in the blisters that milkmaids received from cowpox (a disease similar to smallpox, but much less virulent) protected them from smallpox.


Jenner's Hypothesis:
The initial source of infection was a disease of horses, called "the grease", which was transferred to cattle by farm workers, transformed, and then manifested as cowpox.


Dr Jenner performing his first vaccination on James Phipps, a boy of age 8. 14 May 1796
On 14 May 1796, Jenner tested his hypothesis by inoculating James Phipps, an eight-year-old boy who was the son of Jenner's gardener. He scraped pus from cowpox blisters on the hands of Sarah Nelmes, a milkmaid who had caught cowpox from a cow called Blossom, whose hide now hangs on the wall of the St George's medical school library (now in Tooting). Phipps was the 17th case described in Jenner's first paper on vaccination.


Jenner inoculated Phipps in both arms that day, subsequently producing in Phipps a fever and some uneasiness, but no full-blown infection. Later, he injected Phipps with variolous material, the routine method of immunization at that time. No disease followed. The boy was later challenged with variolous material and again showed no sign of infection.



James Gillray's 1802 caricature of Jenner vaccinating patients who feared it would make them sprout cowlike appendages.


1808 cartoon showing Jenner, Thomas Dimsdale and George Rose seeing off anti-vaccination opponents
Jenner continued his research and reported it to the Royal Society, which did not publish the initial paper. After revisions and further investigations, he published his findings on the 23 cases. Some of his conclusions were correct, some erroneous; modern microbiological and microscopic methods would make his studies easier to reproduce. The medical establishment deliberated at length over his findings before accepting them. Eventually, vaccination was accepted, and in 1840, the British government banned variolation – the use of smallpox to induce immunity – and provided vaccination using cowpox free of charge. (See Vaccination acts).


The success of his discovery soon spread around Europe and was used en masse in the Spanish Balmis Expedition, a three-year-long mission to the Americas, the Philippines, Macao, China, led by Dr. Francisco Javier de Balmis with the aim of giving thousands the smallpox vaccine.The expedition was successful, and Jenner wrote, "I don’t imagine the annals of history furnish an example of philanthropy so noble, so extensive as this."[34] Napoleon, who at the time was at war with Britain, had all his French troops vaccinated, and at the request of Jenner he released English prisoners of war and permitted their return home.[35] Napoleon remarked he could not "refuse anything to one of the greatest benefactors of mankind."[35]



1873 sculpture of Jenner vaccinating his own son against smallpox by Italian sculptor Giulio Monteverde, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Rome
Jenner's continuing work on vaccination prevented him from continuing his ordinary medical practice. He was supported by his colleagues and the King in petitioning Parliament,[36] and was granted £10,000 in 1802 for his work on vaccination.[37] In 1807, he was granted another £20,000 after the Royal College of Physicians confirmed the widespread efficacy of vaccination.
n 1803 in London, he became president of the Jennerian Society, concerned with promoting vaccination to eradicate smallpox. The Jennerian ceased operations in 1809. In 1808, with government aid, the National Vaccine Establishment was founded, but Jenner felt dishonoured by the men selected to run it and resigned his directorship. Jenner became a member of the Medical and Chirurgical Society on its founding in 1805 (now the Royal Society of Medicine) and presented several papers there. Jenner was also elected a foreign honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1802, and a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1806.[39]


Returning to London in 1811, Jenner observed a significant number of cases of smallpox after vaccination. He found that in these cases the severity of the illness was notably diminished by previous vaccination. In 1821, he was appointed physician extraordinary to King George IV, and was also made mayor of Berkeley and justice of the peace.[37] He continued to investigate natural history, and in 1823, the last year of his life, he presented his "Observations on the Migration of Birds" to the Royal Society.


Jenner was found in a state of apoplexy on 25 January 1823, with his right side paralysed. He never fully recovered and eventually died of an apparent stroke, his second, on 26 January 1823, aged 73. He was buried in the Jenner family vault at the Church of St. Mary's, Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Jenner was survived by one son and one daughter, his elder son having died of tuberculosis aged 21.