गोपीनाथ कविराज (मृत्यु: 12 जून 1976)

June 12, 2017

गोपीनाथ कविराज (जन्म:7 सितम्बर 1887 - मृत्यु: 12 जून 1976) संस्कृत के विद्वान और महान दार्शनिक थे। इनके पिताजी का नाम वैकुण्ठनाथ बागची था।


जीवन परिचय
योग और तंत्र के प्रकांड विद्वान डॉ. गोपीनाथ कविराज का जन्म 7 सितम्बर 1887 ई. में ढाका (अब बंगलादेश में) ज़िले के एक गाँव में हुआ था। बचपन में ही माता-पिता का देहांत हो जाने के कारण उनका पालन-पोषण मामा ने किया। उनकी शिक्षा ढाका, कोलकाता, जयपुर और वाराणसी में हुई। सर्वत्र उन्हें छात्रवृत्ति मिलती रही। वाराणसी के क्वींस कॉलेज में संस्कृत में एम.ए. का अध्ययन करते समय उनका आचार्य नरेंद्र देव से परिचय हुआ था। संस्कृत और अंग्रेज़ी के प्रति उनकी रुचि आरम्भ से ही थी। जयपुर के प्रवास काल में उन्होंने वहाँ के समृद्ध पुस्तकालयों का भरपूर लाभ उठाया। गोपीनाथ कविराज का निधन 12 जून, 1976 को वाराणसी में देहांत हो गया।


एम. ए. में प्रथम आने पर कविराज को लाहौर और अजमेर में अध्यापक का कार्य मिल रहा था; किंतु उनकी योग्यता से प्रभावित क्वींस कॉलेज के प्राचार्य डॉ. वेनिस ने उन्हें वाराणसी में रोक कर कॉलेज के 'सरस्वती भवन' पुस्तकालय का अध्यक्ष नियुक्त कर लिया। इस पुस्तकालय को वर्तमान समृद्ध रूप प्रदान करने का मुख्य श्रेय कविराज जी को है। 1924 में वे क्वींस कॉलेज के प्रधानाचार्य बनाए गए और 1937 तक इस पद पर रहे।


गोपीनाथ कविराज जी की मुख्य प्रकाशित कृत्तियाँ हैं-


'विशुद्धानंद' (पाँच खंड)
'विशुद्ध नंद वाणी' (सात खंड)
'अखंड महायोग'
'भारतीय संस्कृति की साधना'
'तांत्रिक वाड्मय में शाक्त दृष्टि'
'तांत्रिक साहित्य'
काशी की सारस्वत
सम्मान और पुरस्कार
गोपीनाथ कविराज सेवानिवृत्ति के पश्चात्‌ अपना समय प्राचीन ज्ञान-विज्ञान, अध्यात्म आदि पर चर्चा और तांत्रिक साधना में ही बिताते रहे। 1934 में सरकार ने उन्हें 'महामहोपाध्याय' की उपाधि प्रदान की। भारत सरकार ने उन्हें 'पद्म विभूषण' की उपाधि से सम्मानित किया था। इसके अतिरिक्त वे निम्नलिखित सम्मान से भी सम्मानित हो चुके हैं।


इलाहाबाद विश्वविद्यालय द्वारा डी लिट् (1947)
उत्तर प्रदेश सरकार द्वारा 'साहित्य वाचस्पति' (1965)
विश्व भारती द्वारा देशिकोत्तम (1976)
काशी हिन्दू विश्वविद्यालय द्वारा डी लिट (21 दिसम्बर, 1956)



Gopinath Kaviraj (7 September 1887 – 12 June 1976) was a Sanskrit-Tantra scholar, Indologist and philosopher. First appointed in 1914 a librarian, he was the Principal of Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi from 1923 to 1937. He was also the editor of the Sarasvati Bhavana Granthamala (Sarasvati Bhavana Texts) during that period.


In 1964 he received the Sahitya Akademi Award, given by the Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters, for his research treatise on Tantra, Tantrik Vangmaya Men Shaktadrishti. In the same year he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian honour given by Government of India. In 1971 he was conferred the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship, the highest literary honour awarded by the Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters.


Kaviraj was the posthumous son of Vaikunthanath, a Bengali scholar of philosophy. He was born in village Dhamrai, in the present Dhaka District, capital of Bangladesh. After receiving his early education at Dhamrai and Kanthalia villages, he joined the K. L. Jubilee High School, Dhaka in seventh class, and studied there till tenth class. His family name was Bagchi and Kaviraj was an honorific attached to him.


In 1906 he moved to Jaipur, where after four years he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree from Maharaja College, Jaipur.[1] He obtained his master's degree from the University of Allahabad. Here he studied with scholars Madhusudan Ojha, Shasdhar Tarkchudamani and others.In 1910 he moved to Devnathpura, Varanasi, and started his postgraduate studies, passing the M.A. from the University of Allahabad in 1914, with first merit position in the first class.


The final phase of his education started at Varanasi under the guidance of Arthur Venis, who appointed him as a librarian of the Sarasvati Bhavan Library of the Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi, where he worked from 1914 to 1920.[1] This period allowed him to pursue research in Tantra. It was at Varanasi that Kaviraj was exposed to various facets of ancient Tantric philosophy. In 1918, he met Vishuddhananda Paramahansa, a yogi in Kashi who demonstrated Yogic powers who was trained in Gyanganj (near Tibet).


In 1924 he became principal of the Government Sanskrit College, later Sampurnanand Sanskrit University in Varanasi. He was the Chief Editor of Sarasvati Bhavana Texts, Sarasvati Bhavana Granthamala. However, being more interested in research and his personal spiritual path, he retired from this position in 1937, after the death of his guru Swami Vishuddhananda. In the following years, he pursued both his sadhana and scholarly research in Tantra. He also started looking after his Guru's ashram in Varanasi. He was fond of Kashi (Varanasi) and never left it except to accept his Padma Vibhushan. In his later years, along with the scholar Sri Anirvan, he devoted himself to the study of Kashmir Shaivism. In his later years he became an ardent devotee of mystic Anandamayi Ma, whom he first met in 1928.


In 1934 he was awarded the title of Mahamahopadhyaya in recognition of his service Sanskrit scholarship.


Later in life, he remained Head of newly established Yoga-Tantra Department at the Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya in Varanasi from 1964 to 1969. However, because of failing health, he left it and shifted to Ma Anandamayi Ashram, Bhadaini locality.
He was married in 1900 to Kusum Kumari, belonging to a family of Sanskrit scholars of East Bengal. The couple had two children, a son named Jitendranath and a daughter named Sudha. He died on June 12, 1976 at his home in Sigra locality in Varanasi, survived by his daughter and grandchildren.


Books authored
Bhartiya Samskriti Aur Sadhana
Tantric Vangmaya mein Saktadrsti
Tantric Sadhana Aur Siddhant
Sri Krisna Prasanga
Kashi Ki Saraswat Sadhana
Patravali
Sva Samvedan
Akhanda Mahayoger Pathe
Visuddhananda Prasanga
Tantrik Sahitya
Sadhu Darshan Evam Sat Prasanga
Gopinath Kaviraj (ed.) (1934). The Nrisimha Prasada: Sraddha Sara of Sri Dalapatriraja (in Sanskrit). Vidya Vilas Press, Benaras.
Gopinath Kaviraj (2006). Yogiraj Vishuddhanand Prasang Tatha Tatva Katha. Vishwavidyalaya Prakashan (University Publication), Varanasi (in Hindi) (2nd ed.).
Gopinath Kaviraj (1966). Aspects of Indian Thought. University of Burdwan.