गिरीश कर्नाड (जन्म:19 मई, 1938)

May 19, 2017

गिरीश कर्नाड (अंग्रेज़ी: Girish Karnad, जन्म:19 मई, 1938) एक जाने माने कवि, रंगमंच कर्मी, कहानी लेखक, नाटककार, फ़िल्म निर्देशक और फ़िल्म अभिनेता हैं। गिरीश कर्नाड को 1994 में साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार, 1998 में ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार के अलावा पद्म श्री और पद्म भूषण से सम्मानित किया जा चुका है। उन्होंने हिन्दी में उत्सव, मंथन, इक़बाल, डोर जैसी फ़िल्मों में काम किया।


जीवन परिचय
गिरीश कर्नाड का जन्म 19 मई, 1938 को माथेरान, महाराष्ट्र में हुआ था। बचपन से उनकी रुचि नाटकों की तरफ थी। महाराष्ट्र में जन्में गिरीश ने स्कूल के समय से ही थियेटर से जुड़कर काम करना शुरू कर दिया था। कर्नाटक आर्ट कॉलेज से स्नातक करने के बाद वह इंग्लैण्ड चले गए। जहाँ उन्होंने आगे की पढ़ाई पूरी की। इसके बाद गिरीश कर्नाड भारत लौट आए और चेन्नई में ऑक्सफोर्ड यूनिवर्सिटी में सात साल तक काम करने के बाद इस्तीफा दे दिया। इस दौरान वह चेन्नई के कई आर्ट और थियेटर क्लबों से जुड़े रहे। इसके बाद वह शिकागो चले गए जहाँ उन्होंने यूनिवर्सिटी और शिकागो में बतौर प्रोफ़ेसर काम किया। तत्पश्चात गिरीश भारत दुबारा वापस लौट आए और अपने साहित्य के अपार ज्ञान से क्षेत्रीय भाषाओं में कई फ़िल्में भी बनाईं और साथ ही कई फ़िल्मों की पटकथा भी लिखी।[1]


गिरीश कर्नाड केवल नाटककार ही नहीं, अभिनेता, फ़िल्म निर्माता, कहानी लेखक और समाज की आधुनिक समस्याओं को उजागर करने वाले महान साहित्यकार हैं।


उनका विचार था कि वे कवि बनेंगे, परन्तु जब छात्रवृत्ति लेकर आक्सफ़ोर्ड गए, तो उन्होंने नाटकों की ओर रुझान दर्शाया। उन्होंने पहला नाटक कन्नड़ में लिखा और उसके बाद उसका अंग्रेज़ी अनुवाद किया। उनके नाटकों में 'ययाति', 'तुग़लक', 'हयवदन', 'अंजु मल्लिगे', 'अग्निमतु माले', 'नागमंडल', 'अग्नि और बरखा' आदि बहुत प्रसिद्ध हैं। गिरीश ने कन्नड़ भाषा में अपनी रचनाएं लिखीं। जिस समय उन्होंने कन्नड़ में लिखना शुरू किया, उस समय कन्नड़ लेखकों पर पश्चिमी साहित्यिक पुनर्जागरण का गहरा प्रभाव था। लेखकों के बीच किसी ऐसी चीज़ के बारे में लिखने की होड़ थी जो स्थानीय लोगों के लिए बिल्कुल नयी थी। इसी समय कर्नाड ने ऐतिहासिक तथा पौराणिक पात्रों से तत्कालीन व्यवस्था को दर्शाने का तरीका अपनाया तथा काफ़ी लोकप्रिय हुए। गिरीश कर्नाड के नाटक ययाति (1961, प्रथम नाटक) तथा तुग़लक़ (1964) ऐसे ही नाटकों का प्रतिनिधित्व करते हैं। तुगलक से कर्नाड को बहुत प्रसिद्धि मिली और इसका कई भारतीय भाषाओं में अनुवाद हुआ। इनकी कृतियों में जहाँ भारत का पुरातन झाँकता है, वहाँ आधुनिकता का भी सम्मिश्रण है। इस प्रकार साहित्य से सम्बन्धित अनेक क्षेत्रों में काम करने के कारण गिरीश कर्नाड ने कन्नड़ साहित्य को ही समृद्ध नहीं किया, हिन्दी साहित्य भी उनकी देन से अछूता नहीं है।


गिरीश कर्नाड एक सफल पटकथा लेखक होने के साथ एक बेहतरीन फ़िल्म निर्देशक भी हैं। गिरीश कर्नाड ने वर्ष 1970 में कन्नड़ फ़िल्म 'संस्कार' से अपने फ़िल्मी कैरियर की शुरुआत की जिसकी पटकथा उन्होंने ही लिखी थी। इस फ़िल्म को कई पुरस्कार मिले जिसके बाद गिरीश ने कई फ़िल्में की। उन्होंने कई हिन्दी फ़िल्मों में भी काम किया, जिसमें निशांत, मंथन, पुकार आदि प्रमुख हैं।[1] गिरीश कर्नाड ने छोटे परदे पर भी अनेक महत्त्वपूर्ण कार्यक्रम और 'सुराजनामा' आदि सीरियल पेश किए हैं। उनके कुछ नाटक जिनमें 'तुग़लक' आदि आते हैं, सामान्य नाटकों से कुछ भिन्न हैं। गिरीश कर्नाड संगीत नाटक अकादमी के अध्यक्ष भी रह चुके हैं।


सम्मान और पुरस्कार
1972 में संगीत नाटक अकादमी पुरस्कार
1974 में पद्मश्री
1992 में पद्मभूषण
1992 में कन्नड़ साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार
1994 में साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार
1998 में ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार
1998 में कालिदास सम्मान
इसके अतिरिक्त गिरीश कर्नाड को कन्नड़ फ़िल्म ‘संस्कार’ के लिए सर्वश्रेष्ठ निर्देशक का राष्ट्रीय पुरस्कार भी मिल चुका है।


Girish Raghunath Karnad (born 19 May 1938) is an Indian actor, film director, Kannada writer playwright and a Rhodes Scholar, who predominantly works in South Indian cinema and Bollywood. His rise as a playwright in the 1960s, marked the coming of age of modern Indian playwriting in Kannada, just as Badal Sarkar did in Bengali, Vijay Tendulkar in Marathi, and Mohan Rakesh in Hindi. He is a recipient of the 1998 Jnanpith Award, the highest literary honour conferred in India.


For four decades Karnad has been composing plays, often using history and mythology to tackle contemporary issues. He has translated his plays into English and has received acclaim. His plays have been translated into some Indian languages and directed by directors like Ebrahim Alkazi, B. V. Karanth, Alyque Padamsee, Prasanna, Arvind Gaur, Satyadev Dubey, Vijaya Mehta, Shyamanand Jalan, Amal Allana and Zafer Mohiuddin.He is active in the world of Indian cinema working as an actor, director, and screenwriter, in Hindi and Kannada cinema, earning awards along the way. He was conferred Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan by the Government of India and won four Filmfare Awards, of which three are Filmfare Award for Best Director – Kannada and the fourth a Filmfare Best Screenplay Award.


Girish Karnad was born in Matheran in present-day Maharashtra into a Saraswat Brahmin (SB) Konkani family, the son of Rao Saheb Dr. Karnad, a wealthy and successful medical practitioner, and his secondary consort, Krishna Bai Mankeekar. Dr. Karnad's first wife was bedridden for several years, and during this time, the family had employed a woman to serve as a full-time nurse and housekeeper. This was Krishna Bai Mankeekar, a penniless and uneducated widow from a poor family who was working as a domestic servant in order to support herself. She lived as a servant in the household for about five years, during which time she grew close to Rao Saheb Karnad, who was lonely and sexually frustrated due to the prolonged ailment of his wife. Rao Saheb Karnad and Krishna Bai Mankeekar fell in love with each other and got married according to Arya Samaj traditions, which recognized and even encouraged the remarriage of widows at a time when such marriage was not acceptable in Indian society. The marriage was socially objectionable for three reasons: because it was bigamous (Rao Saheb Karnad's wife was alive and could not be divorced); because Krishna Bai was from a different, lower caste than Rao Saheb Karnad; and because Krishna Bai was a widow (Hindu customs deems a woman once married to be married for life; widows are not permitted to remarry). Nevertheless, the marriage was legally valid because the laws of the British government permitted the remarriage to widows, and because the law in those days permitted a Hindu man to have more than one wife. Despite the opprobium, sneering and jeering which the marriage provoked in Rao Saheb's family and social circle, Krishna Bai Karnad calmly resumed her duties as nurse and housekeeper after the wedding. Her son Girish was born rather soon after the wedding.


Girish Karnad's initial schooling was in Marathi. In Sirsi, Karnataka, he was exposed to travelling theatre groups, Natak Mandalis as his parents were deeply interested in their plays. As a youngster, Karnad was an ardent admirer of Yakshagana and the theater in his village. His family moved to Dharwad in Karnataka when he was 14 years old, where he grew up with his two sisters and niece.


He earned his Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics and statistics from Karnatak Arts College, Dharwad (Karnataka University), in 1958. Upon graduation Karnad went to England and studied Philosophy, Politics and Economics at Magdalen in Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar (1960–63), earning his Master of Arts degree in philosophy, political science and economics.[4] Karnad was elected President of the Oxford Union in 1963.


After working with the Oxford University Press, Chennai for seven years (1963–70), he resigned to take to writing full-time. While in Madras (now known as Chennai) he got involved with local amateur theatre group, The Madras Players.


During 1987–88, he was at the University of Chicago as visiting professor and Fulbright playwright-in-residence. During his tenure at Chicago Nagamandala had its world premiere at the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis based on Karnad's English translation of the Kannada original. Most recently, he served as director of the Nehru Centre and as Minister of Culture, in the Indian High Commission, London (2000–2003).


He served as director of the Film and Television Institute of India (1974–1975) and chairman of the Sangeet Natak Akademi, the National Academy of the Performing Arts (1988–93).


Karnad made his acting as well as screenwriting debut in a Kannada movie, Samskara (1970), based on a novel by U.R. Ananthamurthy and directed by Pattabhirama Reddy. That movie won the first President's Golden Lotus Award for Kannada cinema.


In television, he played the role of Swami's father in the TV series Malgudi Days (1986–1987), based on R. K. Narayan's books. He also hosted the science magazine Turning Point on Doordarshan, in the early 1990s.


He made his directorial debut with Vamsha Vriksha (1971), based on a Kannada novel by S. L. Bhyrappa. It won him National Film Award for Best Direction along with B. V. Karanth, who co-directed the film. Later, Karnad directed several movies in Kannada and Hindi, including Godhuli (1977) and Utsav (1984). Karnad has made number of documentaries, like one on the Kannada poet D. R. Bendre (1972), Kanaka-Purandara (English, 1988) on two medieval Bhakti poets of Karnataka, Kanaka Dasa and Purandara Dasa, and The Lamp in the Niche (English, 1989) on Sufism and the Bhakti movement. Many of his films and documentaries have won several national and international awards.


Some of his famous Kannada movies include Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane, Ondanondu Kaladalli, Cheluvi and Kaadu and most recent film Kanooru Heggaditi (1999), based on a novel by Kannada writer Kuvempu.


His Hindi movies include Nishaant (1975), Manthan (1976), Swami (1977) and Pukar (2000). He has acted in a number of Nagesh Kukunoor films, starting with Iqbal (2005), where Karnad's role of the ruthless cricket coach got him critical acclaim. This was followed by Dor (2006), 8 x 10 Tasveer (2009), with lead actor Akshay Kumar and Aashayein (2010).


He came back to Hindi movies after three years. He played a key role in Yash Raj Film's movie "Ek tha tiger"(2012) and "Tiger zinda hai"(2017).


Karnad has acted in the Kannada gangster movie Aa Dinagalu.


Awards and honours
For literature
Sangeet Natak Akademi award and Varthur navya Award – 1972
Padma Shri – 1974
Padma Bhushan – 1992
Kannada Sahitya Parishat Award – 1992
Sahitya Academy award – 1994
Jnanpith Award – 1998
Kalidas Samman – 1998
Rajyotsava Awards
University of Southern California, Los Angeles – 2011


For cinema
National Film Awards
1971: Best Direction: Vamsha Vriksha (with B. V. Karanth)
1971: Best Feature Film in Kannada: Vamsha Vriksha
1973: Second Best Feature Film: Kaadu
1977: Best Feature Film in Kannada: Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane[15][16]
1978: Best Screenplay: Bhumika (with Shyam Benegal and Satyadev Dubey)
1978: Best Feature Film in Kannada: Ondanondu Kaladalli
1989: Best Non-Feature Film: Kanaka Purandara
1990: Best Non-feature Film on Social Issues: The Lamp in the Niche
1992: Best Film on Environment Conservation: Cheluvi
1999: Best Feature Film in Kannada: Kaanuru Heggadathi[17]
Filmfare Awards South
1972: Filmfare Award for Best Director - Kannada – Vamsha Vriksha
1974: Filmfare Award for Best Director - Kannada – Kaadu
1978: Filmfare Award for Best Director - Kannada – Ondanondu Kaladalli
1983: Filmfare Award for Best Actor - Kannada - Ananda Bhairavi


Filmfare Awards
1980: Filmfare Best Screenplay Award: Godhuli (with B. V. Karanth)
1980: Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award: Aasha: Nominated
1982: Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award: Teri Kasam : Nominated
Karnataka State Film Awards
1971-72 First Best Film – Vamsha Vriksha
1971-72 Best Dialogue Writer – Vamsha Vriksha
1973-74 Second Best Film – Kaadu
1989-90 Best Supporting Actor – Santha Shishunala Sharifa
1995-96 Best Supporting Actor – Sangeetha Sagara Ganayogi Panchakshara Gavai
1999-00 Second Best Film – Kanooru Heggadithi
Others
Gubbi Veeranna Award for his services to theatre (as a playwright)
Karnad served as the director of the Film and Television Institute of India from 1974–1975, the Indian co-chairman for the Joint Media Committee of the Indo-US Sub-Commission on Education and Culture from 1984–1993, chairman of the Sangeet Natak Academy from 1988–1993, and president of Karnataka Nataka Academy from 1976–1978.
Honorary Doctorate from University of Southern California, Los Angeles – 2011


Filmography
Movies
Title Year Role Language Notes
Sultan: The Saviour 2018 S.I Mahesh Deshpande Bengali
Tiger Zinda Hai 2017 Dr. Shenoy (RAW Chief) Hindi
Chalk n Duster 2016 Manohar Sawant Hindi
Shivaay 2016 Anushka's father Hindi
24 2016 Sathya's grandfather Tamil
Chandrika 2015 Kannada
Dheera Rana Vikrama 2015 K. V. Anand Rao (Home Minister Of Karnataka)
Rudra Tandava 2015 Chiranjeevi Sarja's Father
Savari 2 2014 Vishwanath
Samrat & Co. 2014
Sweety Nanna Jodi 2013
Yaare Koogadali 2012
Mugamoodi 2012 Tamil
Ek Tha Tiger 2012 Dr. Shenoy (RAW Chief)
Kempe Gowda 2011 Mahadev Gowda (Kavya's Father)
Narthagi 2011 Tamil
Komaram Puli 2010 Narasimha Rao (Prime minister) Telugu
Life Goes On 2009 Sanjay
Aashayein 2009 Parthasarthi
8 x 10 Tasveer 2009 Anil Sharma
Sangaathi 2008 Kannada
Chilipili Hakkigalu 2008 School Master Kannada
Lava Kusha 2007 Heros' Father Kannada
Aa Dinagalu 2007 Girish Nayak Kannada Screenplay Writer also
Tananam Tananam 2006 Shastry Kannada
Dor 2006 Randhir Singh
Iqbal 2005 Guruji
Shankar Dada MBBS 2004 Satya Prasad Telugu
Chellamae 2004 Rajasekhar Tamil
Vande Matharam 2001 Vijayashanti's Father Kannada
Hey Ram 2000 Uppilli Iyengar Tamil
Pukar 2000 Mr. Rajvansh
Prathyartha 1999 Sheshanag Dixit (Home Minister of India)
Janumadatha 1999 Dr. Akbar Ali Kannada
AK-47 1999 Jagannath Rao (Shiva Rajkumar's Father)
Kanooru Heggadithi 1999 Kannada Director also
Aakrosh: Cyclone of Anger 1998 Rajwansh Shashtri
April Fool 1998 Kannada
China Gate 1998 Forest Officer Sunder Rajan
Minsaara Kanavu 1997 Amal Raj Tamil
Ratchagan 1997 Sriram Tamil
The Prince 1996 Vishwanath Malayalam
Aatank 1996 Inspector Khan
Dharma Chakram 1996 Telugu
Sangeetha Sagara Ganayogi Panchakshara Gavai 1995 Hanagal Kumaraswamiji
Aagatha 1994 Psychiatrist Kannada
Kadhalan 1994 Kakarla Satyanarayana Murti Tamil
Poorna Sathya 1994 Kannada
Praana Daata 1993
Cheluvi 1992 Village Headman
Gunaa 1991
Antarnaad 1991
Brahma 1991
Chaitanya 1991
Mysore Mallige 1991 Sudharani's Father Kannada
Nehru: The Jewel of India 1990
Santha Shishunala Sharifa 1990 Govindabhatta Kannada
Mil Gayee Manzil Mujhe 1989
Prathama Ushakirana 1989 Doctor Kannada
Akarshan 1988
Kaadina Benki 1988 Kannada
Sutradhar 1987 Zamindar
Naan Adimai Illai 1986 Rajinikanth's Father-in-law
Neela Kurinji Poothappol 1986 Appu Menon Malayalam
Sur Sangam 1985 Pandit Shivshankar Shastri
Meri Jung 1985 Deepak Verma
Zamana 1985 Satish Kumar
Nenapina Doni 1986 Kannada
Nee Thanda Kanike 1985 Dr. Vishnuvardhan's Father
Divorce 1984
Tarang 1984 Dinesh
Anveshane 1983 Rotti
Ek Baar Chale Aao 1983 Din Dayal
Ananda Bhairavi 1983 Narayana Sarma Bilingual Film
Teri Kasam 1982 Rakesh
Aparoopa 1982
Umbartha 1982 Advocate Subhash Mahajan Marathi
Shama 1981 Nawab Yusuf Khan
Apne Paraye 1980 Harish Hindi
Man Pasand 1980 Kashinath
Aasha 1980 Deepak
Beqasoor 1980 Dr. Anand Bhatnagar
Ratnadeep 1979
Sampark 1979 Heera
Sandharbha 1978 Psychiatrist Kannada Special Appearance in climax
Jeevan Mukt 1977 Amarjeet
Swami 1977 Ghanshyam Hindi
Manthan 1976 Dr.Rao
Nishaant 1975 Schoolmaster
Jadu Ka Shankh 1974
Vamsha Vriksha 1971 Raju(lecturer )
Samskara 1970 Praneshacharya


TV series
1. Malgudi Days (1987) as Swami's Father
2. Indradhanush (1989) as Appu and Bala's Father