जानकी रामचन्द्रन (मृत्यु- 19 मई, 1996)
जानकी रामचन्द्रन (अंग्रेज़ी: Janaki Ramachandran ; जन्म- 1923, वाइकोम, केरल; मृत्यु- 19 मई, 1996, चेन्नई, तमिलनाडु) भारत की महिला राजनीतिज्ञों में से एक थीं। वे एक महीने से भी कम समय के लिए तमिलनाडु राज्य की मुख्यमंत्री रही थीं।
जानकी रामचन्द्रन का जन्म 1923 में केरल के वाइकोम में हुआ था।
'ऑल इंडिया अन्ना द्रविड़ मुन्नेत्र कड़गम' (एआईएडीएमके) के संस्थापक एम. जी. रामचन्द्रन इनके पति थे।
एम. जी. रामचन्द्रन ने तीन विवाह किये थे। उनकी पहली पत्नी 'तंगामणी', दूसरी 'सतनन्दवती' और तीसरी 'जानकी रामचन्द्रन' थीं।
पति की मृत्यु (24 दिसम्बर, 1987) के बाद वर्ष 1988 में जानकी रामचन्द्रन 7 जनवरी से 30 जनवरी तक तमिलनाडु की मुख्यमंत्री रहीं।
जानकी रामचन्द्रन तमिल की प्रसिद्ध अभिनेत्री भी रही थीं। उनके पति एम. जी. रामचन्द्रन भी तमिल फ़िल्मों के प्रसिद्ध अभिनेता, फ़िल्म निर्माता-निर्देशक थे, जो बाद में राजनीति में आये थे और तमिलनाडु के मुख्यमंत्री बने थे।
Janaki Ramachandran (30 November 1923 – 19 May 1996, née Vaikom Narayani Janaki), commonly known as V. N. Janaki, was an Indian politician and Movement activist and social media spoof of tamilnadu. V n Janaki was the chief minister of tamilnadu for a long time.
. She was the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for 100 days from 7 January 1988 to the 30th of same month, when her cabinet and state assembly were collectively dissolved by central government for law and order failure.
Janaki was born in the town of Vaikom in Kottayam district of Travancore into a family with ties to both Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Her father, Rajagopal Iyer, was a Tamil Brahmin of high caste hailing from Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu, and was the brother of Papanasam Sivan, the celebrated musician and composer.Her mother, Narayani Amma, belonged to Vaikom and was of a Keralite matrilineal caste. Janaki married twice. Her first husband was Ganapathy Bhat whom she married in 1939. The couple had one son called Surendran, who currently has the rights to M.G.Ramachandran's autobiography. Later in 1963, she married for the second time, to the Tamil cinema actor M. G. Ramachandran. M.G.R and Janaki did not have any children.
Janaki's efforts finally bore fruit and she became a moderately successful actress in the late 1940s. She starred in more than 25 movies including Mohini (1948), Raja Mukthi, Velaikaari, Aiyiram Thalaivangiya Aboorva Chintamani, Devaki and Marudhanaattu Ilavarasi. Many of her hits were in films where the actor M. G. Ramachandran (MGR) played the lead role, and she played either the herione (Marudhanaattu Ilavarasi) or a major supporting role (Raja Mukthi, Velaikkaari etc). The first film where the two acted together was Mohini (1948), which was the first real blockbuster for both of them.
Soon, Janaki and MGR fell in love with each other. MGR had been married twice before this, but both his wives had died of illnesses by this time. Janaki and her husband Ganapathi had never become reconciled to each other, athought they still remained married. Until 1956, there had been no provision at all in Indian law for divorce or dissolution of a Hindu marriage, because divorce is regarded as the greatest possible abomination in the Hindu religion. Even after 1956, and until 1976, there was no provision for divorce by "mutual consent" and it was necessary for the petitioner to prove that the other party had created some great offense, like adultery. However, Ganapathi and Janaki both knew that they could not live with each other, both of them had built other lives for themselves, and their son Surendran was more than 20 years old by now. They therefore reached an agreement between themselves, approached the court with a petition on grounds of adultery, and secured a divorce which ended their marriage of more than 20 years.
After all this had transpires, Janaki and MGR were married to each other in 1963. She was his third wife and he was her second husband. Janaki, who was past 40 by now and had become relegated to side roles, withdrew from films and devoted herself to domesticity. The couple did not have any children with each other. MGR (who had no children by any wife) is alleged to have taken an affectionate interest in the wellbeing of his step-son Surendran.
For a full two decades between 1950 and 1970, MGR was perhaps the greatest star of the Tamil film industry. At the time of their wedding in 1963, he was at his pinaccle, and his place remained firm well into the 1970s. As is so often the case in Tamil Nadu, he was able to channelize the adulation he received as a film star into building a political career for himself. In the early years, he had linked himself to the DMK, but after perceiving that his prospects within that party were limited, he decided to strike out on his own and formed his own political party, the AIADMK. He swept the elections of 1977 and took office as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. He remained Chief Minister from that time until the day of his death in 1987. Janaki was at his side throughout, but only as a devoted wife. She played no role and took little interest in his political activities or in matters of state. MGR chose to groom other young leaders of his party for political responsibility, including the blockbuster hit actress J. Jayalalitha, with who he was said to shared a great professional rapport.
Nevertheless, when her husband MGR died in 1987, Janaki was asked by party members to take his place. In deference to their wishes, Janaki Ramachandran (as she was now known) became Chief minister in January 1988, shortly after her husband's death. However, her government lasted only 24 days, the shortest in the history of Tamil Nadu. She took his place as the Leader of the AIADMK party, which subsequently split into two factions.
Her ministry went for a sensitive vote of confidence of the Eighth Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly in January 1988. This was because AIADMK coalition with 194 MLAs had split into 3 factions, with one faction supporting Jayalalitha (30 MLA) and other supporting the new CM Janaki (101). The clCongress party, under the directive of its national chief and then PM Rajiv gandhi, had decided to completely vote neutral. The opposition severely demanded secret singular voting in the assembly, on the day of vote. But the speaker, rejected this. The speaker was a Janaki supporter, and had already disqualified 30 MLA of jayalalltha faction, and also 15 MLA of DMK from MLA office, the previous day. He had also decreed that the cabinet must garner support of MLAs, who were physically present in the assembly at the time of vote. So instead of proving majority in 234 with just 101, Janaki had to prove majority in 198, which was easily possible. So, the speaker silenced the assembly, and called for vote. The DMK and AIADMK MLAs clashed within assembly, and many were injured bloodily, including the speaker. Without alternative, the speaker requested the CM to protect the house, and as a last measure, the CM called police into the house to quell the riot. Police and goons (disguised as police) classed with each other. In midst of all these problems, the speaker announced unilaterally that the cabinet had won motion of confidence, and then ordered everyone to leave the hall, and he himself left the hall.
But the Central Government under the late Rajiv Gandhi, refused to accept this motion of confidence, and used Article 356 of the Constitution of India to dismiss her government in February the same year. Her party was subsequently defeated in the next elections that were held in 1989. She quit politics after the unification of the two factions of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam .
She died of a cardiac arrest on 19 May 1996.She was buried beside her residence at MGR Gardens in a suburb of Chennai.
Janaki Ramachandran gifted her property in Avvai Shanmugham Salai (Lloyds Road) in honour of her husband to the AIADMK. It subsequently became the headquarters of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party in 1986. She also willed her property in Arcot Street in T.Nagar to set up the Dr.MGR Memorial House in 1988. She was the founder chairman of The Satya Educational & Charitable Society managing many free educational institutions in Chennai. She gave property worth many million dollars for the establishment of educational and charitable institutions in Tamil Nadu. She was also instrumental in setting up the Janaki Ramachandran Educational & Charitable Trust.and are her gifts to charity.