विलियम लायड गैरिसन (24 मई, 1879 ई.)

May 24, 2017

विलियम लायड गैरिसन (अंग्रेजी: William Lloyd Garrision ; जन्म: 10 दिसंबर, 1805 ई.; मृत्यु: 24 मई, 1879 ई.) अमेरीकी दासता विरोधी आंदोलन के नेता थे। उन्हें एक अच्छे सम्पादक के रूप में भी प्रसिद्धि प्राप्त थी। गैरिसन ने कम उम्र में ही 'हेराल्ड' में लिखना शुरू कर दिया था, जिसका अनेक बार वह स्थानापन्न संपादक भी हुआ। जान क्विंसी ऐडम्स को संयुक्त राज्य अमरीका का राष्ट्रपति बनाने के लिये 1828 में गैरिसन ने बेनिंग्टन में 'जनरल ऑफ़ द टाइम्स' नामक पत्र छापना शुरू किया। उन्होंने जब इंग्लैंड की यात्रा की, तब वहाँ के दास प्रथावलंबियों में खलबली मच गई। फिर भी उसने वहाँ दास विरोधी समाज की स्थापना की। विलियम लायड गैरिसन की न्यूयॉर्क में 74 साल की उम्र में 24 मई, 1879 को मृत्यु हुई और बोस्टन में उन्हें दफनाया गया।


जन्म
विलियम लायड गैरिसन का जन्म न्यूबरीपोर्ट, मसाचूसेट्स में 10 दिसंबर, 1805 ई. को हुआ था। जब गैरिसन के पिता की मृत्यु हुई, तब गैरिसन अल्पआयु का ही था।


विलियम लायड गैरिसन ने कम उम्र में ही 'हेराल्ड' में लिखना शुरू कर दिया था, जिसका अनेक बार वह स्थानापन्न संपादक भी हुआ। शीघ्र ही बोस्टन में वह 'नेशनल फिलैंथ्रापिस्ट' का संपादक हुआ, जिस पत्र की स्थापना मद्यपान के विरोध में हुई थी। जान क्विंसी ऐडम्स को संयुक्त राज्य अमरीका का राष्ट्रपति बनाने के लिये 1828 में गैरिसन ने बेनिंग्टन में 'जनरल ऑव द टाइम्स' नामक पत्र छापना शुरू किया। गैरिसन ने उसी साल 'लिबरेटर' नाम का पत्र निकालना शुरू किया। उसका नारा था-


उस पत्र में सिद्धांत रूप से संपादक ने जो ऐलान किया, वह आज अपने सिद्धांत में निष्ठा रखने वालों का नैतिक शपथ बन गया है। 'मैं दृढ़ प्रतिज्ञ हूँ', 'मैं अपनी बात पर दृढ़ रहूँगा', 'मैं कभी क्षमा नहीं करूँगा', 'मैं एक इंच भी पीछे नहीं हटूँगा' और 'अपनी बात सुनाकर रहूँगा'।


बेंजामिन लैंडी के दासता विरोधी व्याख्यानों से प्रभावित होकर गैरिसन ने दासता के विरुद्ध अमरीका में युद्ध ठान दिया। उसका कहना था कि "नीग्रो दासों को सभी प्रकार के नागरिक अधिकार मिलने चाहिए और उसने दासों के पक्ष में आंदोलन आरंभ कर दास स्वामियों से झगड़ा मोल ले लिया। इस संबध में उसे जेल का मुँह भी देखना पड़ा। 1831 ई. में उस पर भारी मुकदमा चला और 5000 डॉलर का इनाम उसे पकड़ने के लिये घोषित हुआ।


गैरिसन ने जब इंग्लैंड की यात्रा की, तब वहां के दास प्रथावलंबियों में खलबली मच गई। फिर भी उसने वहाँ दास विरोधी समाज की स्थापना की। उसके अमरीका लौटने पर राष्ट्रपति अब्राहम लिंकन ने उसकी दास विरोधी सेवाओं को सराहा और दास प्रथा का अमरीका में अंत किया। दूसरी बार जब गैरिसन 1846 ई. में और तीसरी बार 1867 ई. में इंग्लैंड गया, तब उसका वहाँ बड़ा स्वागत और सम्मान हुआ।


William Lloyd Garrison (December 10, 1805 – May 24, 1879) was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, which he founded with Isaac Knapp in 1831 and published in Massachusetts until slavery was abolished by Constitutional amendment after the American Civil War. He was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, and promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States.


Born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, Garrison began his newspaper career as an apprentice compositor for the Newburyport Herald. He became involved in the anti-slavery movement in the 1820s, and over time he rejected both the American Colonization Society and the gradualist views of most others involved in the movement. Garrison co-founded The Liberator to espouse his abolitionist views, and in 1832 he organized the New-England Anti-Slavery Society. This society expanded into the American Anti-Slavery Society, which espoused the position that slavery should be immediately abolished. Garrison also emerged as a leading advocate of women's rights, which prompted a split in the abolitionist community. In the 1870s, Garrison became a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement.
Garrison was born on December 10, 1805, in Newburyport, Massachusetts,[1] the son of immigrants from the British colony of New Brunswick, in present-day Canada. Under An Act for the relief of sick and disabled seamen, Abijah Garrison, a merchant sailing pilot and master, had obtained American papers and moved his family to Newburyport in 1806. The U.S. Embargo Act of 1807, intended to injure Great Britain, caused a decline in American commercial shipping. The elder Garrison became unemployed and deserted the family in 1808. Garrison's mother was Frances Maria Lloyd, reported to have been tall, charming, and of a strong religious character. She started referring to their son William as Lloyd, his middle name, to preserve her family name. She died in 1823, in the city of Baltimore, Maryland.[2]


Garrison sold home-made lemonade and candy as a youth, and also delivered wood to help support the family. In 1818, at 13, Garrison began working as an apprentice compositor for the Newburyport Herald. He soon began writing articles, often under the pseudonym Aristides. Aristides was an Athenian statesman and general nicknamed "the Just." After his apprenticeship ended, Garrison and a young printer named Isaac Knapp bought their own newspaper in 1826, the short-lived Free Press. One of their regular contributors was poet and abolitionist John Greenleaf Whittier. In this early work as a small town newspaper writer, Garrison acquired skills he would later use as a nationally known writer, speaker and newspaper publisher. In 1828, he was appointed editor of the National Philanthropist in Boston, Massachusetts, the first American journal to promote legally-mandated temperance.
At the age of 25, Garrison joined the anti-slavery movement, later crediting the 1826 book of Presbyterian Reverend John Rankin, Letters on Slavery, for attracting him to the cause.[3] For a brief time he became associated with the American Colonization Society, an organization that promoted the resettlement of free blacks to a territory (now known as Liberia) on the west coast of Africa. Although some members of the society encouraged granting freedom to slaves, others considered relocation a means to reduce the number of already free blacks in the United States. Southern members thought reducing the threat of free blacks in society would help preserve the institution of slavery. By late 1829–1830, "Garrison rejected colonization, publicly apologized for his error, and then, as was typical of him, he censured all who were committed to it.



Garrison began writing for and became co-editor with Benjamin Lundy of the Quaker newspaper Genius of Universal Emancipation in Baltimore, Maryland. With his experience as a printer and newspaper editor, Garrison changed the layout of the paper and handled other operation issues. Lundy was freed to spend more time touring as an anti-slavery speaker. Garrison initially shared Lundy's gradualist views, but while working for the Genius, he became convinced of the need to demand immediate and complete emancipation. Lundy and Garrison continued to work together on the paper in spite of their differing views. Each signed his own editorials.


Garrison introduced "The Black List," a column devoted to printing short reports of "the barbarities of slavery—kidnappings, whippings, murders."[5] For instance, Garrison reported that Francis Todd, a shipper from Garrison's home town of Newburyport, Massachusetts, was involved in the domestic slave trade, and that he had recently had slaves shipped from Baltimore to New Orleans in the coastwise trade on his ship the Francis. (This was thoroughly legal, although the US had in 1807 prohibited the international slave trade from Africa.)


Todd filed a suit for libel in Maryland against both Garrison and Lundy; he thought to gain support from pro-slavery courts. The state of Maryland also brought criminal charges against Garrison, quickly finding him guilty and ordering him to pay a fine of $50 and court costs. (Charges against Lundy were dropped on the grounds that he had been traveling when the story was printed.) Garrison refused to pay the fine and was sentenced to a jail term of six months.[6] He was released after seven weeks when the anti-slavery philanthropist Arthur Tappan donated the money for the fine. Garrison decided to leave Baltimore, and he and Lundy amicably agreed to part ways.



In 1849, Garrison became involved in one of Boston's most notable trials of the time. Washington Goode, a black seaman had been sentenced to death for the murder of a fellow black mariner, Thomas Harding. In The Liberator Garrison argued that the verdict relied on "circumstantial evidence of the most flimsy character ..." and feared that the determination of the government to uphold its decision to execute Goode was based on race. As all other death sentences since 1836 in Boston had been commuted, Garrison concluded that Goode would be the last person executed in Boston for a capital offense writing, "Let it not be said that the last man Massachusetts bore to hang was a colored man!" Despite the efforts of Garrison and many other prominent figures of the time, Goode was hanged on May 25, 1849.[citation needed]


Garrison became famous as one of the most articulate, as well as most radical, opponents of slavery. His approach to emancipation stressed "moral suasion," non-violence, and passive resistance. While some other abolitionists of the time favored gradual emancipation, Garrison argued for "immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves." On July 4, 1854, he publicly burned a copy of the Constitution, condemning it as "a Covenant with Death, an Agreement with Hell," referring to the compromise that had written slavery into the Constitution.[


In 1855, his eight-year alliance with Frederick Douglass disintegrated when Douglass converted to political abolitionists' view that the document could be interpreted as being anti-slavery.



Garrison and fellow abolitionists George Thompson and Wendell Phillips, seated at table, daguerreotype, ca. 1850–1851
Garrison's outspoken anti-slavery views repeatedly put him in danger. Besides his imprisonment in Baltimore and the price placed on his head by the State of Georgia, he was the object of vituperation and frequent death threats. On the eve of the Civil War, a sermon preached in a Universalist chapel in Brooklyn, New York, denounced "the blood thirsty sentiments of Garrison and his school; and did not wonder that the feeling of the South was exasperated, taking as they did, the insane and bloody ravings of the Garrisonian traitors for the fairly expressed opinions of the North.



Garrison spent more time at home with his family. He wrote weekly letters to his children and cared for his increasingly ill wife, Helen. She had suffered a small stroke on December 30, 1863, and was increasingly confined to the house. Helen died on January 25, 1876, after a severe cold worsened into pneumonia. A quiet funeral was held in the Garrison home. Garrison, overcome with grief and confined to his bedroom with a fever and severe bronchitis, was unable to join the service. Wendell Phillips gave a eulogy and many of Garrison's old abolitionist friends joined him upstairs to offer their private condolences.[citation needed]


Garrison recovered slowly from the loss of his wife and began to attend Spiritualist circles in the hope of communicating with Helen.[24] Garrison last visited England in 1877, where he met with George Thompson and other longtime friends from the British abolitionist movement.



Grave of William Lloyd Garrison
Suffering from kidney disease, Garrison continued to weaken during April 1879. He moved to New York to live with his daughter Fanny's family. In late May, his condition worsened, and his five surviving children rushed to join him. Fanny asked if he would enjoy singing some hymns. Although he was unable to sing, his children sang favorite hymns while he beat time with his hands and feet. On May 24, 1879, Garrison lost consciousness and died just before midnight.[26]


Garrison was buried in the Forest Hills Cemetery in Boston's Jamaica Plain neighborhood on May 28, 1879. At the public memorial service, eulogies were given by Theodore Dwight Weld and Wendell Phillips. Eight abolitionist friends, both white and black, served as his pallbearers. Flags were flown at half-staff all across Boston. Frederick Douglass, then employed as a United States Marshal, spoke in memory of Garrison at a memorial service in a church in Washington, D.C., saying, "It was the glory of this man that he could stand alone with the truth, and calmly await the result."


Garrison's namesake son, William Lloyd Garrison (1838–1909), was a prominent advocate of the single tax, free trade, women's suffrage, and of the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act. His second son, Wendell Phillips Garrison (1840–1907), was literary editor of The Nation from 1865 to 1906. Two other sons (George Thompson Garrison and Francis Jackson Garrison, his biographer and named after abolitionist Francis Jackson) and a daughter, Helen Frances Garrison (who married Henry Villard), survived him. Fanny's son Oswald Garrison Villard became a prominent journalist and a founding member of the NAACP.



Garrison spent more time at home with his family. He wrote weekly letters to his children and cared for his increasingly ill wife, Helen. She had suffered a small stroke on December 30, 1863, and was increasingly confined to the house. Helen died on January 25, 1876, after a severe cold worsened into pneumonia. A quiet funeral was held in the Garrison home. Garrison, overcome with grief and confined to his bedroom with a fever and severe bronchitis, was unable to join the service. Wendell Phillips gave a eulogy and many of Garrison's old abolitionist friends joined him upstairs to offer their private condolences.


Garrison recovered slowly from the loss of his wife and began to attend Spiritualist circles in the hope of communicating with Helen.[24] Garrison last visited England in 1877, where he met with George Thompson and other longtime friends from the British abolitionist movement.



Grave of William Lloyd Garrison
Suffering from kidney disease, Garrison continued to weaken during April 1879. He moved to New York to live with his daughter Fanny's family. In late May, his condition worsened, and his five surviving children rushed to join him. Fanny asked if he would enjoy singing some hymns. Although he was unable to sing, his children sang favorite hymns while he beat time with his hands and feet. On May 24, 1879, Garrison lost consciousness and died just before midnight


Garrison was buried in the Forest Hills Cemetery in Boston's Jamaica Plain neighborhood on May 28, 1879. At the public memorial service, eulogies were given by Theodore Dwight Weld and Wendell Phillips. Eight abolitionist friends, both white and black, served as his pallbearers. Flags were flown at half-staff all across Boston. Frederick Douglass, then employed as a United States Marshal, spoke in memory of Garrison at a memorial service in a church in Washington, D.C., saying, "It was the glory of this man that he could stand alone with the truth, and calmly await the result."


Garrison's namesake son, William Lloyd Garrison (1838–1909), was a prominent advocate of the single tax, free trade, women's suffrage, and of the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act. His second son, Wendell Phillips Garrison (1840–1907), was literary editor of The Nation from 1865 to 1906. Two other sons (George Thompson Garrison and Francis Jackson Garrison, his biographer and named after abolitionist Francis Jackson) and a daughter, Helen Frances Garrison (who married Henry Villard), survived him. Fanny's son Oswald Garrison Villard became a prominent journalist and a founding member of the NAACP.