एब्बे फारिया (जन्म 31 मई, 1756 ई.)

May 31, 2017

एब्बे फारिया दुनिया का वह पहला व्यक्ति था, जिसने सम्मोहन की कला को एक वैज्ञानिक आधार प्रदान किया और उसे अंधविश्वास तथा झाड़फूक की श्रेणी से बाहर निकाला। उसने इस विद्या का मनोवैज्ञानिक सिद्धांत भी तैयार किया। एब्बे फारिया नेपोलियन बोनापार्ट का विश्वासपात्र सलाहकार तथा अंतरंग दोस्त था। फारिया मूल रूप से भारतीय था, जो सम्मोहन और वशीकरण की कला में इतना पारंगत था कि उसने अपनी इस कला से विश्वविजेता नेपोलियन को भी वशीभूत कर लिया था।

एब्बे फारिया का जन्म 31 मई, 1756 ई. को भारत में गोवा के 'कोलवाले गांव' में हुआ था। उसके पितामह जाति से ब्राह्मण थे। फारिया के पिता कुछ दिन तक पुर्तग़ाल में भी रहे और वहीं से वह पेरिस पहुँचे थे। सम्मोहन की कला में फारिया को विश्व में इतनी अधिक ख्याति मिली कि नेपोलियन बोनापार्ट ने उससे मिलने की ख्वाहिश व्यक्त की। नेपोलियन उसकी इस कला से इतना प्रभावित हुआ कि उसने उसे अपना विश्वासपात्र सलाहकार भी बना लिया।

नेपोलियन और एब्बे फारिया एक बार ग्रेट पिरामिड में सम्राट के शयनकक्ष में साथ-साथ गए थे, जहाँ फारिया ने सम्राट की ममी से एक पिन निकालकर नेपोलियन को इस तरह वशीभूत कर दिया कि उसे हैरतअंगेज एवं दिव्य अनुभव प्राप्त हुए। उस दिन से नेपोलियन उसका भक्त बन गया। एब्बे फारिया को सम्मोहन कला का 'भीष्म पितामह' भी कहा जाता है। फ्राँस के शाही परिवार को जब पता चला कि फारिया सम्मोहन कला का बहुत अच्छा जानकार है तो शाही महल की एक बीमार महिला के इलाज के लिए उसे बुलाया गया। फारिया ने उसे छूकर चमत्कारी ढंग से चंगा कर दिया। पूरे देश में यह खबर फैल गई। धीरे-धीरे उसकी कला और चमत्कारी शक्ति के बारे में काफ़ी चर्चा होने लगी।

Abbé Faria  (31 May 1756 – 20 September 1819), was a Luso-Goan Catholic monk who was one of the pioneers of the scientific study of hypnotism, following on from the work of Franz Mesmer. Unlike Mesmer, who claimed that hypnosis was mediated by "animal magnetism", Faria understood that it worked purely by the power of suggestion. In the early 19th century, Abbé Faria introduced oriental hypnosis to Paris.

He was one of the first to depart from the theory of the "magnetic fluid," to place in relief the importance of suggestion, and to demonstrate the existence of "autosuggestion"; he also established that what he termed nervous sleep belongs to the natural order. From his earliest magnetizing séances, in 1814, he boldly developed his doctrine. Nothing comes from the magnetizer; everything comes from the subject and takes place in his imagination generated from within the mind. Magnetism is only a form of sleep. Although of the moral order, the magnetic action is often aided by physical, or rather by physiological, means–fixedness of look and cerebral fatigue.

Faria changed the terminology of mesmerism. Previously, the focus was on the "concentration" of the subject. In Faria's terminology the operator became "the concentrator" and somnambulism was viewed as a lucid sleep. The method of hypnosis used by Faria is command, following expectancy. The theory of Abbé Faria is now known as Fariism

Later, Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault (1864–1904), the founder of the Nancy School, and Emile Coué (1857–1926) father of applied conditioning, developed the theory of suggestion and autosuggestion and began using them as therapeutic tools. Johannes Schultz developed these theories as Autogenic training.

José Custódio de Faria was born in Candolim, Bardez in the erstwhile territory of Portuguese Goa, on 31 May 1756. He was the son of Caetano Vitorino de Faria of Colvale, and Rosa Maria de Sousa of Candolim. He also had an adopted sister, Catarina who was an orphan. Caetano was in turn a descendant of Anantha Shenoy, a Goud Saraswat Brahmin, village clerk and Patil of the same village who converted to Christianity in the 16th century. He was a Goan Catholic of the Bamonn caste,and was also of partial African descent.

Since his parents had irreconcilable differences, they decided to separate and obtained the Church's dispensation. Caetano Vitorino joined the seminary to complete his studies for the priesthood (which he had interrupted to get married), and Rosa Maria became a nun, joining the St. Monica convent in Old Goa, where she rose to the position of prioress.
The father had great ambition for himself and his son. Hence, Faria reached Lisbon on 23 December 1771 with his father at the age of 25. After a year they managed to convince the King of Portugal, Joseph I, to send them to Rome for Faria Sr. to earn a doctorate in theology, and the son to pursue his studies for the priesthood.

Eventually, the son too earned his doctorate, dedicating his doctoral thesis to the Portuguese Queen, Mary I of Portugal, and another study, on the Holy Spirit to the Pope. Apparently His Holiness was sufficiently impressed to invite José Custódio to preach a sermon in the Sistine Chapel, which he himself attended.

On his return to Lisbon, the Queen was informed by the Nuncio of the Pope's honour to Faria Jr. So, she too invited the young priest to preach to her as well, in her chapel. But Faria, climbing the pulpit, and seeing the august assembly felt tongue tied. At that moment his father, who sat below the pulpit, whispered to him in Konkani: Hi sogli baji; cator re baji (they are all vegetables, cut the vegetables). Jolted, the son lost his fear and preached fluently.

Faria Jr., from then on, often wondered how a mere phrase from his father could alter his state of mind so radically as to wipe off his stage fright in a second. The question would have far reaching consequences in his life.
He was implicated in the Conspiracy of the Pintos during 1787, and left for France in 1788. He stayed in Paris residing at Rue de Ponceau.