लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ (जन्म 1 अक्टूबर 1895)

October 01, 2017

लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ (जन्म 1 अक्टूबर 1895, करनाल, भारत; मृत्यु 16 अक्टूबर 1951, रावलपिंडी, पाकिस्तान), पाकिस्तान के पहले प्रधानमंत्री थे। लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ 14 अगस्त 1947–16 अक्टूबर 1951 तक प्रधानमंत्री का पद संभाला था।

जीवन परिचय
लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ का जन्म 1 अक्टूबर 1895 में हुआ था। वह एक ज़मींदार के बेटे थे और उनकी शिक्षा अलीगढ़, इलाहाबाद और एक्सेटर कॉलेज, ऑक्सफ़ोर्ड में हुई थी। 

जिन्ना की मृत्यु के बाद लियाक़त अली ख़ां को क़ायदे मिल्लत (राष्ट्रनेता) कहा जाने लगा। 1951 में रावलपिंडी में उनकी हत्या कर दी गई।

लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ पेशे से बैरिस्टर थे और 1923 में उन्होंने राजनीति में प्रवेश किया। पहले वह संयुक्त प्रांत की प्रांतीय परिषद के लिए और बाद में केन्द्रीय विधानसभा के लिए चुने गए। वह मुस्लिम लीग में शामिल हो गए और बाद में केन्द्रीय विधानसभा के लिए चुने गए। उन्होंने क्रमिक रूप से सम्मान अर्जित किया और बाद में पाकिस्तान के लिए संघर्ष के दौरान मुस्लिम समुदाय की प्रशंसा बटोरी और सफलता प्राप्त करने के बाद, जब वह जिन्ना के पहले गवर्नर-जनरल बने, तो प्रधानमंत्री पद पर उनकी उपलब्धियाँ असाधारण थीं। यदि जिन्ना ने पाकिस्तान की नींव रखी, तो लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ ने घरेलू और विदेश संबंधी मुख्य नीतियाँ बनाकर इसकी स्थापना की। बाद में इन्हीं नीतियों ने देश का मार्गदर्शन किया।

Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan ( born 1  October 1895 – 16 October 1951), widely known as Quaid-e-Millat (Leader of the Nation) and Shaheed-e-Millat(Martyr of the Nation), was one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan, statesman, lawyer, and political theorist who became and served as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he also held cabinet portfolio as the first foreign, defence, and the frontier regions minister from 1947 until his assassination in 1951.Allegations had been pointed towards the involvement of Afghan monarch Zahir Shah and the United States government in his assassination, though this claim has not merited any substantial evidence. Prior to that, he briefly tenured as the first finance minister in the interim government led by its Governor General Mountbatten.

He was born into an influential feudal Muslim – Nausherwani family in Karnal, Eastern Punjab on 1 October 1895. Ali Khan was educated at the Aligarh Muslim University in India, and then at Oxford University in the United Kingdom. Well-educated, he was a democratic political theorist who promoted parliamentarism in India. After first being invited by the Congress Party, he opted for the Muslim League led by influential Mohammad Ali Jinnah who was advocating the eradication of the injustices and ill-treatment meted out to Indian Muslims by the British government. He pursued his role in the independence movements of India and Pakistan, while serving as the first Finance Minister in the interim government of British Indian Empire, prior to the independence and partition of India and Pakistan in 1947. Ali Khan assisted Jinnah in campaigning for the creation of a separate state for Indian Muslims.

Ali Khan's credentials secured him the appointment of Pakistan's first Prime Minister, Ali Khan's foreign policy sided with the United States and the West, though his foreign policy was determined to be a part of the Non Aligned Movement.Facing internal political unrest, his government survived a coup hatched by the leftists and communists. Nonetheless, his influence grew further after Jinnah's death, and he was responsible for promulgating the Objectives Resolution. In 1951, at a political rally in Rawalpindi, Ali Khan was assassinated by a hired assassin, Said Babrak.

He was born into a Muslim – Nausherwani Family of Karnal, Eastern Punjab of India, on October 1, 1895. His father, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan, possessed the titles of Rukun-al-Daulah, Shamsher Jang and Nawab Bahadur, by the local population and the British Government who had wide respect for his family. The Ali Khan family was one of the few landlords whose property (300 villages in total including the jagir of 60 villages in Karnal) expanded across both eastern Punjab and Muzaffarnagar the United Provinces. Both of his parents, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan and Mahmoodah Begum are buried at their princely family compound located outside Karnal, Haryana, India. Liaquat Ali Khan’s former personal residence is located at Jansath Tehsil of Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh about 80km from his ancestral estate and is now being considered by the Uttar Pradesh government to be opened as a tourist destination. The family owned pre-eminence to timely support given by Liaqat's grandfather Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan of Karnal to British army during 1857 rebellion.(source-Lepel Griffin's Punjab Chiefs Volume One). Liaquat Ali Khan's mother, Mahmoodah Begum, arranged for his lessons in the Qur'an and Ahadith at home before his formal schooling started.His family had strong ties with the British Government, and the senior British government officers were usually visited at his big and wide mansion at their time of visit.

His family had deep respect for the Indian Muslim thinker and philosopher Syed Ahmad Khan, and his father had a desire for the young Liaqat Ali Khan to beeducated in the British educational system; therefore, his family sent Ali Khan to the famous Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), where he obtained degrees in law and political science.

In 1913, Ali Khan attended the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College (now Aligarh Muslim University), graduating with a BSc degree in Political science and LLB in 1918, and married his cousin, Jehangira Begum, also in 1918. After the death of his father in 1919, Ali Khan, with British Government awarding the grants and scholarship, went to England, attending Oxford University's Exeter College to pursue his higher education. In 1921, Ali Khan was awarded the Master of Law in Law and Justice, by the college faculty who also conferred on him a Bronze Medallion. While a graduate student at Oxford, Ali Khan actively participated in student unions and was elected Honorary Treasurer of the Majlis Society— a student union founded by Indian Muslim students to promote the Indian students' rights at the university.Thereafter, Ali Khan was called to join the Inner Temple, one of the Inns of Court in London. He was called to the Bar in 1922 by one of his English law professor, and starting his practices in law as an advocate.

Ali Khan returned to his homeland India in 1923, entering in national politics, determining to eradicate to what he saw as the injustice and ill-treatment of Indian Muslims under the British Indian Government and the British Government.His political philosophy strongly emphasis a united India, first gradually believing in the Indian nationalism. The Congress leadership approached to Ali Khan to become a part of the party, but after attending the meeting with Jawaharlal Nehru, Ali Khan's political views and ambitions gradually changed. Therefore, Ali Khan refused, informing the Congress Party about his decision, and instead joining the All-India Muslim League|Muslim League in 1923, led under another lawyer Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Soon Jinnah called for an annual session meeting in May 1924, in Lahore, where the goals, boundaries, party programmes, vision, and revival of the League, was an initial party agenda and, was carefully discussed at the Lahore caucus. At this meeting, Khan was among those who attended this conference, and recommending the new goals for the party.

When Muhammad Ali Jinnah returned to India, he started to reorganise the Muslim League. In 1936, the annual session of the League met in Bombay (now Mumbai). In the open session on 12 April 1936, Jinnah moved a resolution proposing Khan as the Honorary General Secretary. The resolution was unanimously adopted and he held the office till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.In 1940, Khan was made the deputy leader of the Muslim League Parliamentary party. Jinnah was not able to take active part in the proceedings of the Assembly on account of his heavy political work. It was Khan who stood in his place. During this period, Khan was also the Honorary General Secretary of the Muslim League, the deputy leader of their party, Convenor of the Action Committee of the Muslim League, Chairman of the Central Parliamentary Board and the managing director of the newspaper Dawn.

Liquat Ali Khan (second left, first row) and wife, Sheila Irene Pant (far right, first row), meeting with the Nawab of Amb in 1948.The Pakistan Resolution was adopted in 1940 at the Lahore session of the Muslim League. The same year elections were held for the central legislative assembly which were contested by Khan from the Barielly constituency. He was elected without contest. When the twenty-eighth session of the League met in Madras (now Chennai) on 12 April 1941, Jinnah told party members that the ultimate aim was to obtain Pakistan. In this session, Khan moved a resolution incorporating the objectives of the Pakistan Resolution in the aims and objectives of the Muslim League. The resolution was seconded and passed unanimously.

In 1945–46, mass elections were held in India and Khan won the Central Legislature election from the Meerut Constituency in the United Provinces. He was also elected Chairman of the League's Central Parliamentary Board. The Muslim League won 87% of seats reserved for Muslims of British India. He assisted Jinnah in his negotiations with the members of the Cabinet Mission and the leaders of the Congress during the final phases of the Freedom Movement and it was decided that an interim government would be formed consisting of members of the Congress, the Muslim League and minority leaders. When the Government asked the Muslim League to send five nominees for representation in the interim government, Khan was asked to lead the League group in the cabinet. He was given the portfolio of finance.The other four men nominated by the League were Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar, Ghazanfar Ali Khan, Abdur Rab Nishtar, and Jogendra Nath Mandal. By this point, the British government and the Indian National Congress had both accepted the idea of Pakistan and therefore on 14 August 1947, Pakistan came into existence.After independence, Khan was appointed as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan by the founding fathers of Pakistan. Khan was made the prime minister during the penultimate times, the country was born at the time of starting of the extensive competition between two world superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. Khan faced with mounted challenges and difficulties while trying to administer the country. Khan and the Muslim League faced with dual competitions with socialists in West-Pakistan and, the communists in East Pakistan.The Muslim League founded difficult to face competition with socialists in West Pakistan, and lost considerable support in favor of socialists led its Marxist leader Faiz Ahmad Faiz. In East Pakistan, the Muslim League's political base was vanished by Pakistan Communist Party after staging a mass protest.

On the internal front, Khan faced with socialist's nationalists challenges and different religious ideologies further pushed the country into more unrest.Problems with Soviet Union and Soviet bloc further escalated after Khan failed to make a visit to Soviet Union, despite his intention.Khan envisioned a non-aligned foreign policy, however despite some initiatives, the country became more dependent on the United States and this ultimately influenced Khan's policy towards the communist bloc.His government faced serious challenges including the dispute over Kashmir with India, forcing Khan to approach his counterpart the Prime minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru. A settlement was reached to end the fighting, while Nehru also referred the issue to the United Nations. Generally an anti-communist, Ali Khan send the recommendation to Jinnah to appoint Abdul Rashid as country's first Chief Justice, and Justice Abdur Rahim as President of Constitutional Assembly, both of them were also the Founding fathers of Pakistan.Earliest reforms Khan took was to centralize the Muslim League, and planned and prepared the Muslim League to become the successor authority of Pakistan.

Prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan took initiatives to developed educational infrastructure, science and technology in the country, with carrying the vision of successful development of science and technology to aid the essential foreign policy of Pakistan. In 1947, with Jinnah inviting Rafi Muhammad Chaudhry to Pakistan, on the other hand, Liaquat Ali Khan called Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, awarding him the citizenship, and appointed him as his first government science adviser in 1950. During this same time, Khan also called Raziuddin Siddiqui, asking him to plan and establish the educational research institutes in the country.Khan asked Ziauddin Ahmed to draft the educational policy, which was submitted to his office in November 1947, and a road map to establishing the education in the country was quickly adopted by Khan's government.

Khan's government authorized the establishment of the Sindh University. Under his government, the science infrastructure was slowly built but he continued inviting Muslim scientists and engineers from India to Pakistan, believing it essential for Pakistan's future progress.In 1947, Khan and his Treasure minister Malick Ghulam proposed the idea of Five-Year Plans, by putting the country's economic system on investment and capitalism grounds.Focussing on an initial Planned economic system under the directives of private sector and consortium industries in 1948, economic planning began to take place during his office, but soon collapsed partly because of unsystematic and inadequate staffing. Khan's economic policies were soon heavily dependent to United State aid to the country. In spite of planning an independent economic policy, Khan's economic policies focused on the United States' aid programme, on the other hand, Nehru focused on socialism and went on to be a part of Non Aligned Movement. An important event during his premiership was the establishment of National Bank in November 1949, and the installation of a paper currency mill in Karachi.Unlike his Indian counterpart Jawaharlal Nehru, Khan drew Pakistan's economy planned, but open free market economy, with no government influence.


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