गोपबंधु दास (जन्म- 9 अक्टूबर, 1877)

October 09, 2017

गोपबंधु दास (अंग्रेज़ी: Gopabandhu Das; जन्म- 9 अक्टूबर, 1877, पुरी, उड़ीसा; मृत्यु- 17 जून, 1928) प्रसिद्ध स्वतंत्रता सेनानी, पत्रकार, कवि तथा साहित्यकार थे। ये उड़ीसा के प्रख्यात सामाजिक कार्यकर्ता थे। गोपबंधु दास को 'उत्कल मणि' के नाम से भी जाना जाता है। उड़ीसा राज्य में जब भी राष्ट्रीयता और स्वाधीनता संग्राम की बात की जाती है, तब लोग गोपबंधु दास का ही नाम लेते हैं। उड़ीसा के लोग इन्हें 'दरिद्र सखा' अर्थात 'दरिद्र के सखा' के रूप में याद करते हैं। गोपबंधु दास ने उत्कल के विभिन्न अंचलों को संघठित करके पूर्ण उड़ीसा राज्य बनाने की जी-जान से कोशिशें की थीं। उत्कल के दैनिक पत्र 'समाज' के ये संस्थापक थे।


जन्म तथा शिक्षा
गोपबंधु दास का जन्म 9 अक्टूबर, 1877 को उड़ीसा के पुरी ज़िले में साक्षी गोपाल के निकट सुआंडो नामक गाँव में हुआ था। इनके पिता का नाम दैतारि दास तथा माता का नाम स्वर्णमायी देवी था। इनका सम्बन्ध एक ग़रीब ब्राह्मण परिवार से था। गोपबंधु दास ने पुरी, कटक तथा कलकत्ता (वर्तमान कोलकाता) में शिक्षा ग्रहण की थी। इन्होंने कोलकाता विश्वविद्यालय से सन 1906 में एल. एल. बी. की डिग्री प्राप्त की।


शिक्षा पूरी करने के बाद गोपबंधु दास आजीविका के लिए वकालत करने लगे। वे जीवन पर्यंत शिक्षा, समाज सेवा और राष्ट्रीय कार्यों में संलग्न रहे। राष्ट्रीय भावना इनके अन्दर बाल्यकाल से ही विद्यमान थी। गोपबंधु दास विद्यार्थी जीवन से ही 'उत्कल सममिलनी' संस्था में शामिल हो गये थे। इस संस्था का एक उद्देश्य सभी उड़िया भाषियों को एक राज्य के रूप में संगठित करना भी था। उन्होंने इसे स्वतंत्रता संग्राम की अग्रवाहिनी बनाया। जब महात्मा गाँधी ने 'असहयोग आन्दोलन' प्रारम्भ किया' तब गोपबंधु दास ने अपनी संस्था को कांग्रेस में मिला दिया।


गोपबंधु दास उड़ीसा में राष्ट्रीय चेतना के अग्रदूत थे। स्वतंत्रता संग्राम में उन्होंने अनेक बार जेल की यात्राएँ कीं। 1920 की नागपुर कांग्रेस में उनके प्रस्ताव पर ही कांग्रेस ने भाषावार प्रांत बनाने की नीति को स्वीकार किया था। उड़ीसा राष्ट्रवाद के वे श्रेष्ठ पादरी बन गए थे तथा 1921 में उन्होंने उड़ीसा में 'असहयोग आंदोलन' की अगुवाई की। उन्हें दो वर्ष की कैद हुई। गोपबंधु दास लाला लाजपत राय द्वारा स्थापित 'सर्वेन्ट ऑफ दी प्यूपल सोसायटी' के भी सदस्य बने थे।


वर्ष 1909 में गोपबंधु दास ने साक्षी गोपाल में एक हाई स्कूल की स्थापना की। यह विद्यालय शांतिनिकेतन की भाँति खुले वातावरण में शिक्षा देने का एक नया प्रयोग था।


रचनाएँ
सन 1919 में गोपबंधु दास ने 'समाज' नामक एक साप्ताहिक अख़बार निकाला। 1930 में यह दैनिक अख़बार बन गया। अब गोपबन्धु सामाजिक सेवाओं के प्रति समर्पित हो गये। गोपबन्धु एक प्रसिद्ध लेखक और साहित्यकार भी थे। उन्होंने कुछ कविताएँ तथा गद्य लिखे, उनमें से निम्न थे-


'बन्दीर आत्मकथा' - एक कैदी की आत्मकथा
'अवकाश चिन्ता' - लेजर टाइम थोट्स
'कारा कविता' - जेल में लिखी कविताएँ
'नचिकेता उपाख्यान' - नचिकेता की कहानी
धर्मपद
गो माहात्मय


Gopabandhu Das (1877–1928), known as Utkalamani (Gem of Odisha), was a social worker, reformer, political activist, journalist, poet and essayist.Born on 9 October 1877 to Swarnamayee Devi and Shree Daitari Das, in a Utkala Brahmin family, in Suando Village, near Puri, Odisha, Gopabandhu was a legend in the Indian culture. He served his people even at the cost of his family. At the age of twelve, he married Apti, but continued his education. After completion of primary education, he joined Puri Zilla School in 1893, where he met his teacher Mukhtiar Ramchandra Das, who was not only a genius but also a nationalist. It was at this school and with this teacher that Gopabandhu learned many nationalistic values. The inadequate response of authorities for the victims of cholera prompted him to start a voluntary corps Puri Seva Samiti. This movement later led to establishment of a separate hospital for cholera patients at Puri, and made Gopabandhu's name in society.



During his youth, the Oriya literary world was divided between the ancient, The Indradhanu and the modernists, The Bijuli. Gopabandhu realized that a nation as well as its literature live by their tradition. He believed that a national superstructure of the present can endure only if it is based upon the solid foundations of the national heritage. His satirical poem in The Indradhanu led to an ugly incident and punishment meted out by the Inspector of schools. Gopabandhu refused to apologize for such writing in lieu of punishment. The satire was on the ongoing controversy as to the greatness of Upendra Bhanja and Radhanath Rai in 1893, for which he was censured.


He attended Ravenshaw College, Cuttack despite his father's recent death. During this period, he started Kartavya Bodhini Samiti (Duty Awakening Society) to encourage his friends to do their duty as citizens and take on social, economic and political problems. He was leading a team to aid flood victims, when he heard of his son's serious illness but remained to serve the locals rather than return home to his son. His social services as a young man prevented this brilliant student from completing his undergraduate degree, although he later earned his BL, LLB with distinction at Calcutta University.


While pursuing his study in the Ravenshaw College, he along with his friends like Brajasunder Das and Acharya Harihar Das made a commitment to serve the poor and the destitutes. While his son was seriously ill, he got the report of flood in the interior area of the district. He ignored the serious illness of his son and went to the flood affected people to provide them relief. During his absence, his son died. He said : "There are so many to look after my son. What more can I do ? But there are so many people crying for help in the affected areas and it is my duty to go there. Lord Jagannath is here to take care of the boy." Further, the day he got the news of his success in Law Examination, Calcutta, his wife died.


In Kolkata, he started a labor union and set up night schools for Oriya laborers and cooks. He came in contact with the Vande Mataram group which infused him with the Swadeshi spirit. His new mission was to reform society through improving the educational system. His wife died when he was only twenty-eight, and his three sons had already died. He left his daughters with his elder brother, and gave his brother his share of the family property in the village to support them.


After coming back from Kolkata, he worked as a government lawyer in Mayurbhanj court. Law did not interest him, so he gave up his practice and worked for the welfare of the people. He believed that only education can improve and develop society so in August 1909, he established a school in Satyabadi Bana Vidyalaya, near Puri.


Gopabandhu established his famous Satyabadi Bana Bidyalaya in the year 1909, at Sakshi Gopal, a place of pilgrimage near Puri, the world-famous abode of Lord Jagannath and the great centre of Hindu pilgrimage. He started this institution getting inspiration from Shantiniketan which was set up earlier by Kabiguru Rabindranath Thakur. Gopabandhu was an admirer of the old gurukul ashrama system of education. He tried to make an experiment and came up with the bana bidyalaya. Bana bidyalaya was to be a man making industry. set in a natural surrounding of Bakul and Chhuriana trees, Bana bidyalaya was an epitome of the importance of naturalistic settings for students. He believed in education that could help the child to grow mentally, physically and spiritually. His system allowed children of all castes and backgrounds to sit together, dine together and study together. His Satyabadi Bana Bidyalaya had features like residential schooling, teaching in a natural setting and cordial relationship between the teacher and the taught. Das laid emphasis on co-curricular activities too. Gopabandhu wanted to generate nationalistic feelings in students through education and teach them the value of service to man kind. Gopabandhu's experiment of bana bidyalaya is regarded as one of the most noble experiments in the field of education.


He was instrumental in making Oriya journalism suitable for the common man. He published a monthly magazine called Satyabadi in 1914. Later on 4 October 1919, the auspicious day of Vijayadsahami he started the weekly newspaper The Samaja, which became the most popular daily news paper of Odisha. He served as editor "Samaj" continuously until his death, at which time he bequeathed it to Lok Sevak Mandal.


Gopabandhu fell ill while attending a fund raising ceremony in Lahore for the flood victims of Odisha, after which he never recovered. He died of prolonged illness on 17 June 1928.