लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ ( मृत्यु 16 अक्टूबर 1951)

October 16, 2017

लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ (जन्म 1 अक्टूबर 1895, करनाल, भारत; मृत्यु 16 अक्टूबर 1951, रावलपिंडी, पाकिस्तान), पाकिस्तान के पहले प्रधानमंत्री थे। लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ 14 अगस्त 1947–16 अक्टूबर 1951 तक प्रधानमंत्री का पद संभाला था।


जीवन परिचय
लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ का जन्म 1 अक्टूबर 1895 में हुआ था। वह एक ज़मींदार के बेटे थे और उनकी शिक्षा अलीगढ़, इलाहाबाद और एक्सेटर कॉलेज, ऑक्सफ़ोर्ड में हुई थी।


लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ पेशे से बैरिस्टर थे और 1923 में उन्होंने राजनीति में प्रवेश किया। पहले वह संयुक्त प्रांत की प्रांतीय परिषद के लिए और बाद में केन्द्रीय विधानसभा के लिए चुने गए। वह मुस्लिम लीग में शामिल हो गए और बाद में केन्द्रीय विधानसभा के लिए चुने गए। उन्होंने क्रमिक रूप से सम्मान अर्जित किया और बाद में पाकिस्तान के लिए संघर्ष के दौरान मुस्लिम समुदाय की प्रशंसा बटोरी और सफलता प्राप्त करने के बाद, जब वह जिन्ना के पहले गवर्नर-जनरल बने, तो प्रधानमंत्री पद पर उनकी उपलब्धियाँ असाधारण थीं। यदि जिन्ना ने पाकिस्तान की नींव रखी, तो लियाक़त अली ख़ाँ ने घरेलू और विदेश संबंधी मुख्य नीतियाँ बनाकर इसकी स्थापना की। बाद में इन्हीं नीतियों ने देश का मार्गदर्शन किया।


जिन्ना की मृत्यु के बाद लियाक़त अली ख़ां को क़ायदे मिल्लत (राष्ट्रनेता) कहा जाने लगा। 1951 में रावलपिंडी में उनकी हत्या कर दी गई।


Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan ( born October 1895 – 16 October 1951), widely known as Quaid-e-Millat (Leader of the Nation) and Shaheed-e-Millat (Urdu: شہِیدِ مِلّت‎‎ Martyr of the Nation), was one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan, statesman, lawyer, and political theorist who became and served as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he also held cabinet portfolio as the first foreign, defence, and the frontier regions minister from 1947 until his assassination in 1951. Allegations had been pointed towards the involvement of Afghan monarch Zahir Shah and the United States government in his assassination, though this claim has not merited any substantial evidence. Prior to that, he briefly tenured as the first finance minister in the interim government led by its Governor General Mountbatten.


He was born into an influential feudal Muslim – Nausherwani family in Karnal, Eastern Punjab on 1 October 1895. Ali Khan was educated at the Aligarh Muslim University in India, and then at Oxford University in the United Kingdom.Well-educated, he was a democratic political theorist who promoted parliamentarism in India. After first being invited by the Congress Party, he opted for the Muslim League led by influential Mohammad Ali Jinnah who was advocating the eradication of the injustices and ill-treatment meted out to Indian Muslims by the British government. He pursued his role in the independence movements of India and Pakistan, while serving as the first Finance Minister in the interim government of British Indian Empire, prior to the independence and partition of India and Pakistan in 1947.Ali Khan assisted Jinnah in campaigning for the creation of a separate state for Indian Muslims.


Ali Khan's credentials secured him the appointment of Pakistan's first Prime Minister, Ali Khan's foreign policy sided with the United States and the West, though his foreign policy was determined to be a part of the Non Aligned Movement. Facing internal political unrest, his government survived a coup hatched by the leftists and communists. Nonetheless, his influence grew further after Jinnah's death, and he was responsible for promulgating the Objectives Resolution. In 1951, at a political rally in Rawalpindi, Ali Khan was assassinated by a hired assassin, Said Babrak.


He was born into a Muslim – Nausherwani Family of Karnal, Eastern Punjab of India, on October 1, 1895.His father, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan, possessed the titles of Rukun-al-Daulah, Shamsher Jang and Nawab Bahadur, by the local population and the British Government who had wide respect for his family. The Ali Khan family was one of the few landlords whose property (300 villages in total including the jagir of 60 villages in Karnal) expanded across both eastern Punjab and Muzaffarnagar the United Provinces. Both of his parents, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan and Mahmoodah Begum are buried at their princely family compound located outside Karnal, Haryana, India. Liaquat Ali Khan’s former personal residence is located at Jansath Tehsil of Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh about 80km from his ancestral estate and is now being considered by the Uttar Pradesh government to be opened as a tourist destination. The family owned pre-eminence to timely support given by Liaqat's grandfather Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan of Karnal to British army during 1857 rebellion.(source-Lepel Griffin's Punjab Chiefs Volume One). Liaquat Ali Khan's mother, Mahmoodah Begum, arranged for his lessons in the Qur'an and Ahadith at home before his formal schooling started.[citation needed] His family had strong ties with the British Government, and the senior British government officers were usually visited at his big and wide mansion at their time of visit.


His family had deep respect for the Indian Muslim thinker and philosopher Syed Ahmad Khan, and his father had a desire for the young Liaqat Ali Khan to beeducated in the British educational system; therefore, his family sent Ali Khan to the famous Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), where he obtained degrees in law and political science.


In 1913, Ali Khan attended the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College (now Aligarh Muslim University), graduating with a BSc degree in Political science and LLB in 1918, and married his cousin, Jehangira Begum, also in 1918. After the death of his father in 1919, Ali Khan, with British Government awarding the grants and scholarship, went to England, attending Oxford University's Exeter College to pursue his higher education. In 1921, Ali Khan was awarded the Master of Law in Law and Justice, by the college faculty who also conferred on him a Bronze Medallion.[citation needed] While a graduate student at Oxford, Ali Khan actively participated in student unions and was elected Honorary Treasurer of the Majlis Society— a student union founded by Indian Muslim students to promote the Indian students' rights at the university.Thereafter, Ali Khan was called to join the Inner Temple, one of the Inns of Court in London. He was called to the Bar in 1922 by one of his English law professor, and starting his practices in law as an advocate.


After independence, Khan was appointed as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan by the founding fathers of Pakistan. Khan was made the prime minister during the penultimate times, the country was born at the time of starting of the extensive competition between two world superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. Khan faced with mounted challenges and difficulties while trying to administer the country. Khan and the Muslim League faced with dual competitions with socialists in West-Pakistan and, the communists in East Pakistan. The Muslim League founded difficult to face competition with socialists in West Pakistan, and lost considerable support in favor of socialists led its Marxist leader Faiz Ahmad Faiz. In East Pakistan, the Muslim League's political base was vanished by Pakistan Communist Party after staging a mass protest.


On the internal front, Khan faced with socialist's nationalists challenges and different religious ideologies further pushed the country into more unrest.Problems with Soviet Union and Soviet bloc further escalated after Khan failed to make a visit to Soviet Union, despite his intention. Khan envisioned a non-aligned foreign policy, however despite some initiatives, the country became more dependent on the United States and this ultimately influenced Khan's policy towards the communist bloc.His government faced serious challenges including the dispute over Kashmir with India, forcing Khan to approach his counterpart the Prime minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru. A settlement was reached to end the fighting, while Nehru also referred the issue to the United Nations. Generally an anti-communist, Ali Khan send the recommendation to Jinnah to appoint Abdul Rashid as country's first Chief Justice, and Justice Abdur Rahim as President of Constitutional Assembly, both of them were also the Founding fathers of Pakistan. Earliest reforms Khan took was to centralize the Muslim League, and planned and prepared the Muslim League to become the successor authority of Pakistan.