जीवनानन्द दास (मृत्यु- 22 अक्टूबर, 1954)

October 22, 2017

जीवनानन्द दास (अंग्रेज़ी: Jibanananda Das ; जन्म- 17 फ़रवरी, 1899, बंगाल; मृत्यु- 22 अक्टूबर, 1954, कोलकाता, पश्चिम बंगाल) बांग्ला भाषा के प्रसिद्ध कवि और लेखक थे। वे ऐसे बांग्ला कवि थे, जिन्होंने कविता में वर्णनात्मक शैली के स्थापत्य का सूत्रपात किया। उनके उपन्यास और कहानियाँ बांग्ला क्षेत्र के लोगों के बीच ख़ास स्थान रखते हैं। उन्हें 1955 में मरणोपरांत श्रेष्ठ कविता के लिए 'साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार' से सम्मानित किया गया था। जीवनानन्द दास जी की कविता ने रवींद्रनाथ के बाद बांग्ला समाज की कई पीढ़ियों को चमत्कृत किया। उनकी कविता 'बनलता सेन' तो मानो अनिवार्य रूप से कंठस्थ की जाती रही है।


 परिचय
जीवनानन्द दास जी का जन्म 11 फ़रवरी, सन 1899 को ब्रिटिशकालीन बंगाल के बारीसाल में हुआ था। वे एक ब्राह्मण परिवार से सम्बन्ध रखते थे। बांग्ला कविता तथा उपन्यास आदि के लेखन में विशेष योगदान देने वाले जीवनानन्द दास जी का निधन 22 अक्टूबर, 1954 को कोलकाता, पश्चिम बंगाल में हुआ।


जीवनानन्द दास की कविता ने रवींद्रनाथ के बाद बांग्लाभाषी समाज की कई पीढ़ियों को चमत्कृत किया और उनकी कविता 'बनलता सेन' तो मानों अनिवार्य रूप से कंठस्थ की जाती रही है। आधुनिक बांग्ला कविता को जीवनानन्द दास का योगदान अप्रतिम है। प्रकृति से उनके गहरे तादात्म्य ने बांग्ला कविता को कई अनूठे बिंब दिये। जीवनानन्द दास समर्थ गद्यकार भी थे। उनकी मृत्यु के बाद उनके लिखे कई उपन्यास प्रकाश में आये। कहानियाँ भी उन्होंने लिखी थीं। जब 1955 में साहित्य अकादमी ने स्वीकृत भारतीय भाषाओं में से प्रत्येक की सर्वश्रेष्ठ साहित्यिक कृति पर पुरस्कारों की स्थापना की तो बांग्ला में पुरस्कार के लिए चुनी जाने वाली पुस्तक जीवनानन्द दास की श्रेष्ठ कविता ही थी। अंग्रेज़ी से हिन्दी अनुवाद में प्रस्तुत इस विनिबंध का यह तीसरा संस्करण है, और इसमें दी गई कविताएँ अंग्रेज़ी अनुवादों से न होकर मूल बांग्ला से ही प्रयाग शुक्ल द्वारा अनुदित की गई हैं। इसका तीसरा संशोधित-परिवर्द्धित संस्करण इस बात का भी प्रमाण है कि इसे हिन्दी-जगत में पसंद किया गया है।


जीवनानंद दास ने बांग्ला भाषा में वर्णनात्मक शैली के स्थापत्य का सूत्रपात किया, जिसने एकरैखिक प्रगतिशील समय को उलट दिया। 1940 में उन्होंने’पैराडाइम’ शीर्षक से ‘परिचय’ पत्रिका में एक कविता लिखी थी, जिसमें तार्किक विचलन, असंतुलन, व्यंग्य, उल्लास, आवेग, बहुरैखिकता, गत्यात्मक बिम्ब, केंद्र रहितता सहित उत्तर आधुनिक पाठ की सभी विशेषताएँ थीं। वे पहले बांग्ला कवि थे, जिन्होंने ‘विरोधाभासों’ का अतिशय इस्तेमाल किया था। जीवनानंद दास के समकालीन कवि संजय भट्टाचार्य ने कहा था “इस इनडिटरमिनिजम की परिस्थिति में ’रीजन’ का महत्त्व पहले जैसा नहीं रहा, साइन्टिफिक वर्ल्ड भी मिस्टिक वर्ल्ड की ओर जा रहा है।


जीवनानंद दास के उपन्यास और कहानियाँ उनके जीवन काल में नहीं छपीं, क्योंकि वे स्थापत्य, व्याकरणिक और वैचारिक दृष्टि से बौद्धिक मठाधीशों द्वारा प्रवर्तित सभी पूर्व धारणाओं के परे जाती थीं। ऐसे आलोचक और विद्वान हैं जो यह बताते हैं कि ये आख्यान उपन्यास और कहानियों की कोटि में नहीं आते। इनमें से कुछ जीवनानंद दास की कविताओं के भंडार से ‘वास्तविक कविताओं’ की सही संख्या के बारे में गंभीरता से बात करते हैं। वस्तुत: औपनिवेशिक कैनन ने ही रवींद्रनाथ की कविताओं में से भी वास्तविक कविताओं की संख्या गिनने के लिए कुछ आलोचकों को प्रेरित किया है।


बांग्ला कवि जीवनानन्द दास ने कहा था कि- "कविता लिखने वाले बहुतेरे होते हैं, पर सभी कवि नहीं होते।"
कवि जीवनानंद दास ने आज़ादी से पहले अपनी एक कविता में ‘वनलता सेन’ के रूप में एक ऐसी शांतिदायिनी युवती को रचा, जो कवि को कहीं मिली थी। ‘चारों ओर बिछा जीवन के ही समुद्र का फेन / शांति किसी ने दी तो वह थी वनलता सेन।‘ यही वनलता सेन आगे चलकर आलोक श्रीवास्‍तव से लेकर अनेक कवियों के यहां विचरण करती नज़र आती है।


काव्य ग्रन्थ
झरा पालोक (1927)
धूसर पाण्दुलिपि (1936)
वनलता सेन (1942)
महापृथिबी (1944)
सातटि तारार तिमिर (1948)
रूपसी बांगल (1957)
श्रेष्ठो कविता (1958)
बेला अबेला कालबेला (1961)
सुदर्शना (1973)
मानव बिहंगम (1979)
आलो पृथिबी (1981)
अप्रकाशितो एकान्नो (1999)
उपन्यास
माल्यवान
पूर्णीमा
कल्याणी
चारजोन
बिभाव
मृणाल
निरूपमयात्रा
कारुवासना
जीवनप्रणाली
विराज
प्रेतिनीर
सुतीर्थो
बासमोतीर उपाख्यान


Jibanananda Das ((17 February 1899 – 22 October 1954) born in 17 February 1899 in Barisal, Bengal Presidency (Present day Bangladesh), was a Bengali poet, writer, novelist and essayist. While not particularly recognised initially, today Das is acknowledged as "the premier poet of the post-Tagore era in India".One of his translators, Clinton B. Seely, is among those who consider Jibanananda Das as "Bengal's greatest modern poet" and its "best loved poet" too. For the poets in the latter half of the twentieth century Das "has practically come to take the place of Tagore".Das's oeuvre is eclectic and resists classification under any single heading or school.


Das wrote ceaselessly, but as he was an introvert and the "most alone of  poets", he felt "compelled to suppress some of his most important writings or to locate them in a secret life". During his lifetime, only seven volumes of his poems were published. After his death, it was discovered that apart from poems Das wrote several novels and a large number of short stories. His unpublished works are still being published.


Das died on 22 October 1954; eight days after he was hit by a tramcar. The witnesses said that though the tramcar whistled, he did not stop and got struck. Some deem the accident as an attempt at suicide.
Jibanananda Das was born in 1899 in a Vaidya-Brahmin family in the small district town of Barisal, located in the south of Bangladesh. His ancestors came from the Bikrampur region of Dhaka district, from a now-extinct village called Garupara on the banks of the river Padma Jibanananda's grandfather Sarbananda Dasgupta was the first to settle permanently in Barisal. He was an early exponent of the reformist Brahmo Samaj movement in Barisal and was highly regarded in town for his philanthropy. He erased the -gupta suffix from the family name, regarding it as a symbol of Vedic Brahmin excess, thus rendering the surname to Das. Jibanananda's father Satyananda Das (1863–1942) was a schoolmaster, essayist, magazine publisher, and founder-editor of Brôhmobadi, a journal of the Brahmo Samaj dedicated to the exploration of social issues.


Jibanananda's mother Kusumkumari Das was a poet who wrote a famous poem called Adôrsho Chhele ("The Ideal Boy") whose refrain is well known to Bengalis to this day: Amader deshey hobey shei chhele kobey / Kothae na boro hoye kajey boro hobey. (The child who achieves not in words but in deeds, when will this land know such a one?)


Jibanananda was the eldest son of his parents, and was called by the nickname Milu. A younger brother Ashokananda Das was born in 1908 and a sister called Shuchorita in 1915. Milu fell violently ill in his childhood, and his parents feared for his life. Fervently desiring to restore his health, Kusumkumari took her ailing child on pilgrimage to Lucknow, Agra and Giridih. They were accompanied on these journeys by their uncle Chandranath.


In January 1908, Milu, by now eight years old, was admitted to the fifth grade in Brojomohon School. The delay was due to his father's opposition to admitting children into school at too early an age. Milu's childhood education was therefore limited to his mother's tutelage.


His school life passed by relatively uneventfully. In 1915 he successfully completed his matriculation examination from Brajamohan College, obtaining a first division in the process. He repeated the feat two years later when he passed the intermediate exams from Brajamohan College. Evidently an accomplished student, he left his home at rural Barisal to join University of Calcutta.
On 14 October 1954, he was crossing a road near Calcutta's Deshapriya Park when he was hit by a tram. Jibanananda was returning home after his routine evening walk. At that time, he used to reside in a rented apartment on the Lansdowne Road. Seriously injured, he was taken to Shambhunath Pundit Hospital. Poet-writer Sajanikanta Das who had been one of his fiercest critics was tireless in his efforts to secure the best treatment for the poet. He even persuaded Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy (then chief minister of West Bengal) to visit him in hospital. Nonetheless, the injury was too severe to redress. Jibanananda died in hospital on 22 October 1954 eight days later, at about midnight. He was then 55 and left behind his wife, Labanyaprabha Das, a son and a daughter, and the ever-growing band of readers.
His body was cremated the following day at Keoratola crematorium. Following popular belief, it has been alleged in some biographical accounts that his accident was actually an attempt at suicide.Although none of the Jibanananda biographers have indicated such, it appears from circumstantial evidence that it was an attempt to end his own life.


The literary circle deeply mourned his death. Almost all the newspapers published obituaries which contained sincere appreciations of the poetry of Jibanananda. Poet Sanjay Bhattacharya wrote the death news and sent to different newspapers. On 1 November 1954, The Times of India wrote :


The premature death after an accident of Mr. Jibanananda Das removes from the field of Bengali literature a poet, who, though never in the limelight of publicity and prosperity, made a significant contribution to modern Bengali poetry by his prose-poems and free-verse. ... A poet of nature with a serious awareness of the life around him Jibanananda Das was known not so much for the social content of his poetry as for his bold imagination and the concreteness of his image. To a literary world dazzled by Tagore's glory, Das showed how to remain true to the poet's vocation without basking in its reflection."


In his obituary in the Shanibarer Chithi, Sajanikanta Das quoted from the poet :


When one day I’ll leave this body once for all −
Shall I never return to this world any more?
Let me come back
On a winter night
To the bedside of any dying acquaintance
With a cold pale lump of orange in hand.