विट्ठलदास झवेरभाई पटेल (मृत्यु: 22 अक्टूबर, 1933)

October 22, 2017

विट्ठलदास झवेरभाई पटेल (अंग्रेज़ी:Vithaldas Jhaverbhai Patel, जन्म: 27 सितम्बर, 1873 - मृत्यु: 22 अक्टूबर, 1933) भारत के प्रमुख राष्ट्रीय नेता और सरदार वल्लभ भाई पटेल के बड़े भाई थे। अपनी बैरिस्टरी की पढ़ाई पूरी करने के बाद ही ये देश को आज़ादी दिलाने के कार्य में जुट गये।


परिचय
झवेरभाई पटेल का जन्म 27 सितम्बर, 1873 ई. को नाडियाड, गुजरात में हुआ था। 1905 ई. में इन्होंने अपनी बैरिस्टरी पूरी की और वकालत करने लगे, परन्तु शीघ्र ही भारतीय राष्ट्रीय आन्दोलन में खिच आये। इन्होंने रौलट एक्ट के विरुद्ध भारत में प्रबल जन आंदोलन चलाया। इन्हें केन्द्रीय असेम्बली का सदस्य भी चुना गया, किन्तु कांग्रेस की असहयोग की नीति के अनुसार सदस्यता से त्यागपत्र दे दिया। बाद में ये स्वराज्य पार्टी में सम्मिलित हो गये और केन्द्रीय असेम्बली के पहले ग़ैर सरकारी अध्यक्ष निर्वाचित हुए थे।वियना में उनकी भेंट नेताजी सुभाषचन्द्र बोस से हुई। नेताजी पर उनका पूरा विश्वास था और उन्होंने उनको अपनी इच्छानुसार राष्ट्रीय कार्यों में ख़र्च करने के लिए दो लाख रुपये की वसीयत कर दी। इसके बाद ही वियना में उनकी मृत्यु हो गई। 1933 ई. में उनकी मृत्यु पर छोटे भाई सरदार पटेल ने असहयोग के सिद्धान्तों में विश्वास करते हुए भी भारत में ब्रिटिश अदालत में मुक़दमा दायर कर दिया और बड़े भाई की वसीयत रद्द करा दी। विट्ठलदास झवेरभाई पटेल महान देशभक्त थे और भारत के अंग्रेज़ शासक भी उनसे डरते थे।


इन्होंने अपना निर्णायक मत डालकर सरकारी सार्वजनिक सुरक्षा बिल को अस्वीकृत करा दिया और अधिवेशन के दौरान पुलिस को केन्द्रीय असेम्बली हॉल में प्रवेश करने से रोक दिया। इन्होंने 1930 ई. में कांग्रेस नेताओं के नज़रबंद कर दिये जाने के विरोधस्वरूप केन्द्रीय असेम्बली के अध्यक्ष पद से इस्तीफ़ा दे दिया और इसके बाद ही स्वयं इनको भी नज़रबंद कर दिया गया। जेल में उनका स्वास्थ्य चौपट हो गया और वे स्वास्थ्य सुधार के लिए यूरोप चले गए।


Vithalbhai Patel (27 September 1873 – 22 October 1933) was an Indian legislator and political leader, co-founder of the Swaraj Party and elder brother of Sardar Patel.


Born in Nadiad, in the Indian state of Gujarat, Vithalbhai Jhaverbhai Patel was the third of five Patel brothers, four years elder to Vallabhbhai Patel, raised in the village of Karamsad. According to Gordhanbhai Patel, a mistake on Vitalbhai's birthdate has crept into many modern accounts. His birthdate is clearly stated as September 27, 1873 on his last passport but the confusion arose from obituary notices after his death listing it incorrectly as February 18, 1871. Based on that, he is only two years elder to his younger brother Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. He was son of Jhaverbhai and Ladbai Patel, who were both devout followers of the Swaminarayan sect of Vaisnava Hinduism, a sect which emphasizes the purity of personal life as essential to the life of devotion. The rare idealism the religion impressed on his parents likely had a significant impact on the minds of Vithalbhai and his renowned brother Vallabhai Patel. Vithalbhai educated himself in Nadiad and in Bombay, and worked as a pleader (a junior lawyer) in the courts of Godhra and Borsad. At a very young age, he was married to a girl from another village, Diwaliba.


His younger brother, Vallabhbhai Patel, had similarly studied by himself and worked as a pleader. Studying in England was a dream for both men. Vallabhbhai had saved enough money and ordered his passport and travel tickets, when the postman delivered them to Vithalbhai, it having been addressed to a Mr. V.J. Patel, Pleader. Vithalbhai insisted on traveling on those documents actually meant for Vallabhbhai, pointing out that it would be socially criticized that an older brother followed the lead of the younger. Respecting his brother despite the obvious cruelty of fate on his own hard work, Vallabhbhai allowed him to proceed to England, and even paid for his stay.


Vithalbhai entered the Middle Temple Inn in London, and completed the 36-month course in 30, emerging at the top of his class. Returning to Gujarat in 1913, Vithalbhai became an important barrister in the courts of Bombay and Ahmedabad. However, his wife died in 1915, and he remained a widower.


Although never truly accepting the philosophy and leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Patel joined the Congress and the struggle for freedom. He had no regional base of support, yet he was an influential leader who expanded the struggle through fiery speeches and articles published. When Mahatma Gandhi aborted the struggle in 1922 following the Chauri Chaura incident, Patel left the Congress to form the Swaraj Party with Chittaranjan Das and Motilal Nehru, which would seek to foil the Raj by sabotaging the government after gaining entry in the councils. The party only succeeded in dividing the Congress and finally itself, but Patel and others were important voices who rebelled against the leadership of Gandhi when the nation anguished over the abortion of the Non-Cooperation Movement


Patel won a seat on the Bombay Legislative Council, a body with no real functions. Although failing to achieve anything concrete in terms of the fight for national independence, self-government or public welfare, Patel grew popular and respected by his oratorical and witty mastery and belittling of the Raj's officials, winning many a battle of wit, which bore little overall significance. In 1914, Vithalbhai played a prominent role in two bills on the council, "the Bombay District Municipal Act Amendment Bill" and "The Town Planning Bill" in 1914. His most well known proposal for which he received praise was for the extension of primary education to municipal districts in the Bombay presidency outside of the city of Bombay in 1917. After a long battle, the bill was passed after several amendments and modifications.Throughout his time on the legislative council, he passed and fought for several bills and amendments on medical practice. In a 1912 amendment to the Bombay medical act, he sought to register doctors for disciplinary action for malpractice. This amendment did not include ayuvedic physicians. In 1923 he was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly, a chamber of elected and appointed Indian and British representatives with limited legislative powers, and in 1925 became the Assembly's president, or speaker.


As the President of the Assembly, Patel laid down the practices and procedures for the business of the Assembly. In 1928, he created a separate office for the Assembly, independent of the administration of the Government of India. He established the convention of neutrality of the President in debates, except to use a casting vote in favour of the status quo.