नोरोदम शिनौक (जन्म: 31 अक्टूबर, 1922,)

October 31, 2017

नोरोदम शिनौक (जन्म: 31 अक्टूबर, 1922, कंबोडिया; मृत्यु: 15 अक्टूबर, 2012, बीजिंग, चीन) कंबोडिया के राजा थे।


इनके पिता- नोरोदम सुरामरित और माता- सिसोवथ कोसामाक थी।
नोरोदम शिनौक ने 1955 में अपने पिता नोरोदम सुरामरित के पक्ष में सिंहासन का त्याग कर दिया और राजनीतिक संगठन संगकूम में 1955 के आम चुनावों में जीत का नेतृत्व किया और कंबोडिया के प्रधान मंत्री बन गए।
वह 22 मार्च, 1955 से 18 मार्च, 1970 तक कंबोडिया के प्रधान मंत्री रहे।
नोरोदम शिनौक कंबोडिया के दो बार राजा बने। यह 24 अप्रैल, 1941 से 2 मार्च, 1955 तथा बाद में 24 सितम्बर, 1993 से 7 अक्टूबर, 2004 कंबोडिया के राजा रहे।
नोरोदम शिनौक भारत में गणतंत्र दिवस के अवसर पर 1975 में मुख्य अतिथि के रूप में आये थे।


Norodom Sihanouk ( 31 October 1922 – 15 October 2012) was the King of Cambodia from 1941 to 1955 and from 1993 to 2004. Affectionately known to the Cambodian people as Samdech Euv (Khmer: សម្តេចឪ, father prince), Sihanouk became king in 1941. After the Second World War, he campaigned for Cambodia's independence from French rule, which took place in 1953. In 1955, Sihanouk abdicated the throne in favour of his father Norodom Suramarit, and went on to form the political organisation Sangkum. Sihanouk led the Sangkum to victory in the 1955 general elections, and became the Prime Minister of Cambodia. After his father's death in 1960, Sihanouk introduced a constitutional amendment which made him the Head of State of Cambodia, a position which he held until 1970. Between 1955 and 1970, Sihanouk governed Cambodia under one-party rule, and cracked down on political dissent from the Democrat party and Pracheachon. While he was officially neutral in foreign relations, in practice he was friendlier toward communist countries, particularly China, than to the United States and its anti-Communist allies.


In the military coup of March 1970 Sihanouk was overthrown by Lon Nol and Sisowath Sirik Matak, paving the way for the formation of the US-backed Khmer Republic. He fled to China and North Korea and went on to form a government-in-exile and resistance movement known as the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea (GRUNK) and National United Front of Kampuchea, respectively. As GRUNK's leader, Sihanouk lent support to the Khmer Rouge, which fought against the Khmer Republic in the Cambodian Civil War. The Khmer Rouge won the civil war in 1975 and a new government, Democratic Kampuchea, was formed. Sihanouk subsequently returned to Cambodia and became its figurehead head of state. In 1976 Sihanouk resigned from his position, leading to his house arrest. He was incarcerated until 1979, when Vietnamese forces overthrew the Khmer Rouge. Sihanouk went into exile again, and in 1981 he formed FUNCINPEC, a resistance party. The following year, Sihanouk was appointed as the President of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK), consisting of the three anti-Vietnamese resistance factions – FUNCINPEC, Khmer Rouge and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF). As this coalition retained Cambodia's seat at the United Nations, this made him Cambodia's internationally recognized head of state.


In the late 1980s, informal talks were carried out to end hostilities between the Vietnam-supported People's Republic of Kampuchea and resistance factions under the CGDK. In 1990 the Supreme National Council of Cambodia was formed as a transitional body to oversee Cambodia's sovereign matters, with Sihanouk as its president. In 1991 peace accords were signed, and the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) was established the following year. The UNTAC organised general elections in 1993, and a coalition government, jointly led by his son Norodom Ranariddh and Hun Sen, was subsequently formed. In June 1993 Sihanouk was reinstated as Cambodia's Head of State, and in September 1993 was appointed king. In 2004 Sihanouk abdicated again in favour of another son, Norodom Sihamoni, who succeeded him as king. He was known as the King father until his death in 2012.


Sihanouk pursued an artistic career during his lifetime, and wrote several musical compositions. He produced 50 films between 1966 and 2006, at times directing and acting in them.